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POACEAE (Gramineae) GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted

Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]

Key to Poaceae

DASYOCHLOA FLUFF GRASS

Jesús Valdés-Reyna


1 sp. (Greek: thick with hair and grass) [Valdés-Reyna 2003 FNANM 25:45–48]
Unabridged references: [Caro 1981 Dominguezia 2:1–17; Sanchez 1983 Lilloa 36:131–138; Valdés-Reyna & Hatch 1997 Sida 17:645–666]
Unabridged note: Dasyochloa has been included in Triodia, Tridens, and Erioneuron. It resembles Munroa, in its bracteate inflorescence (Caro 1981). Seedlings of Dasyochloa, as in those of Erioneuron, are shaggy-white-villous. These "hairs" are composed of hair-like, water-soluble crystals, a product of transpiration, which wash off in water.

D. pulchella (Kunth) Rydb.
NATIVE
Perennial herb, stoloniferous or mat-forming. Stem: generally 4–10 cm, scabrous or puberulent, initially erect, becoming bent, rooting at base of inflorescence. Leaf: not basal; sheath with a tuft of hairs at throat, < 2 mm; ligule of hairs 3–5 mm; blade 2–6 cm, folded. Inflorescence: panicle 1–2.5 cm, 1–1.5 cm wide, terminal, short, dense, branches spike-like, bearing 2–4 subsessile to short-pedicelled spikelets, subtended by leafy bracts, densely white-pubescent, light-green or purple-tinged. Spikelet: generally 6–9 mm, laterally compressed, florets (4)6–10; axis breaking above glumes; glumes 6–9 mm, subequal to adjacent lemma, glabrous, 1-veined, short-awned to mucronate; florets bisexual; lemma 3–5.5 mm, densely long-hairy below and on margins, thinly membranous, 3-veined, 2-lobed to ± 1/2, obtuse, midvein extending into a straight awn; palea 2–3.5 mm; anthers 3.
2n=16. Sandy to rocky slopes, flats, desert shrubland, woodland; 300–1700 m. Desert; to Colorado, Texas, central Mexico. [Erioneuron pulchellum (Kunth) Tateoka] Feb–May [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Dasyochloa pulchella (Kunth) Willd. ex Rydb.

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 27 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Dasyochloa, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=22360, accessed on Nov 27 2014

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click for enlargement Dasyochloa pulchella
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Charles Webber 1999 California Academy of Sciences

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Dasyochloa pulchella Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.