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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain (rarely achene-like).
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
Key to Poaceae
Perennial herb, cespitose. Stem: erect. Leaf: generally basal and cauline; sheaths < internodes; ligule short, densely ciliate; blade narrow, flat to folded. Inflorescence: generally raceme-like (occasionally panicle-like or spikelet 1). Spikelet: ± laterally compressed; glumes ± equal, > florets, papery, 1–7-veined; florets 3–8, breaking above glumes and between florets; callus short-hairy; lemma rounded, (5)7–11-veined, tip 2-toothed, awn 0 or generally awned on back below teeth, awn generally bent, flat, coiled below bend, straight, ± cylindric above bend; palea = lemma; anthers 3. Fruit: elliptic.Key to Danthonia
20 species: warm temperate, tropics, America, Europe, northern Africa. (É. Danthoine, French botanist, agrostologist, 1739–1794) [Darbyshire 2003 FNANM 25:301–306] Danthonia pilosa R. Br. now treated as Rytidosperma. Variation, especially in Danthonia californica, and Danthonia unispicata, needs study. Danthonia purpurea L. f. [Karroochloa purpurea (L. f.) Conert & Türpe], grown at the Botanical Garden at Berkeley, but not naturalized.
Stem: 1–3 dm. Leaf: basal and cauline; sheath densely hairy; blade sparsely to densely hairy, hairs papillate at base or leaf surface papillate only; upper blades 3–8 cm, 1–3 mm wide, flat to ± inrolled, ascending. Spikelet: generally 1(2–3); stalk erect, puberulent; glumes 9–25 mm; florets 3–6; lemma 5.5–11 mm, margin hairy, teeth 1–5 mm, awn 4–9 mm.
2n=36. Dry meadows, rocky slopes, open sites in conifer forest; 400–3200 m. Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Joaquin Valley, Western Transverse Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains, Modoc Plateau; to western Canada, western United States. May–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Danthonia unispicata (Thurb.) Munro ex Vasey
Previous taxon: Danthonia intermedia subsp. intermedia
Next taxon: Dasyochloa
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 8 2013
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Danthonia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=22333, accessed on Dec 8 2013
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© 2005 Steve Matson
|Bioregions in which Danthonia unispicata occurs||Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.|
Chart based on elevation range in eFlora and elevations and coordinates of CCH records.
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
Note: About half of the CCH records include both elevation and coordinates.
| Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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