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POACEAE (Gramineae) GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted

Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]

Key to Poaceae

DANTHONIA OAT GRASS

James P. Smith, Jr. & Kelly W. Allred

Perennial herb, cespitose. Stem: erect. Leaf: generally basal and cauline; sheaths < internodes; ligule short, densely ciliate; blade narrow, flat to folded. Inflorescence: generally raceme-like (occasionally panicle-like or spikelet 1). Spikelet: ± laterally compressed; glumes ± equal, > florets, papery, 1–7-veined; florets 3–8, breaking above glumes and between florets; callus short-hairy; lemma rounded, (5)7–11-veined, tip 2-toothed, awn 0 or generally awned on back below teeth, awn generally bent, flat, coiled below bend, straight, ± cylindric above bend; palea = lemma; anthers 3. Fruit: elliptic.
20 species: warm temperate, tropics, America, Europe, northern Africa. (É. Danthoine, French botanist, agrostologist, 1739–1794) [Darbyshire 2003 FNANM 25:301–306] Danthonia pilosa R. Br. now treated as Rytidosperma. Variation, especially in Danthonia californica, and Danthonia unispicata, needs study. Danthonia purpurea L. f. [Karroochloa purpurea (L. f.) Conert & Türpe], grown at the Botanical Garden at Berkeley, but not naturalized.

Key to Danthonia

D. californica Bol. CALIFORNIA OAT GRASS
NATIVE
Stem: (1)3–13 dm. Leaf: basal and cauline; sheath glabrous to densely hairy, base papillate; upper blades 8–30 cm, generally 2–5 mm wide, glabrous or hairy, flat, abruptly spreading to reflexed. Inflorescence: generally raceme-like, 2–6 cm; lower branches flexible, divergent or reflexed at maturity. Spikelet: generally 3–6, generally 14–25 mm; stalk generally spreading, puberulent; glumes 10–23 mm; florets 3–8; lemma 5–15 mm, base, lower margin hairy, back ± glabrous, teeth 2–5 mm, awn 4–12 mm.
2n=36. Generally moist meadows, open woodland; 45–2300 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, San Bernardino Mountains, s Peninsular Ranges, Modoc Plateau; to western United States, western Canada, South America (Chile). [Danthonia californica var. americana (Scribn.) Hitchc.] Apr–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Aug 1 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Danthonia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=22319, accessed on Aug 1 2014

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click for enlargement Danthonia californica
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2002 Bart and Susan Eisenberg

Bioregions in which Danthonia californica occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.