Directory       News       Site Map       Home
    Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Previous taxon


Alan R. Smith, except as noted

Perennial herb in soil or rock crevices; rhizome generally short-creeping, ascending, or erect, scales small to large, generally tan to brown, generally uniformly colored. Leaf: generally tufted or short-spaced, 5–200+ cm, generally ± alike; stipe firm or fleshy (easily crushed), base darker or not, with 2 vascular strands; blade generally 1–3-pinnate, ± glabrous or with hairs, hair-like scales, or gland-tipped hairs on axes, veins generally free (or netted); rachis, costa generally grooved adaxially. Sporangia: sori round, oblong, J-shaped, or linear along veins; indusia 0 or oblong, J-shaped, reniform, or linear, or of many segmented hair- or scale-like fragments or lobes encircling sorus from below; spores elliptic, winged, ridged, or spiny, scar linear.
± 15 genera, 700 species: worldwide, especially tropics, wooded areas, but some genera (e.g., Cystopteris, Woodsia) generally temperate. See note, reference (Smith et al. 2006 Taxon 55:705–731) under Dryopteridaceae for removal of genera from that family to this. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Woodsiaceae

Rhizome generally short-creeping. Leaf: stipe ± fleshy, often with few scales, base ×-section with 2 vascular strands; blade 2–4-pinnate, pinnae sides unequal, acroscopic pinnules more spreading, larger, more incised; veins free. Sporangia: sori round; indusia hood-like, arched over sorus, attached on side away from margin, often obscure in mature sori.
± 20 species: generally temperate, a few at high elevations in tropics. (Greek: bladder fern, from indusia) Often confused with Woodsia (pinnae sides equal; more fragmented indusia encircling sorus base). Sole sp. of Cystopteris in California highly polymorphic, may represent a sp. complex. Malformed spores produced by some plants, possibly indicative of hybridization, existence of different ploidal levels (numbers of chromosome sets).

C. fragilis (L.) Bernh.
Rhizome 2–4 mm diam; scales at tip, lanceolate, ± brown, shining, glabrous, entire. Leaf: 8–30(37) cm; stipe generally < blade, < 1.5 mm wide, glabrous, base straw-colored to red-brown; blade generally 10–24 cm, 3–9 cm wide, lance-ovate, lowest 2–4 pinnae ± < others. Sporangia: indusia generally ± white.
2n=168. Shady, moist rock crevices, meadows, streamsides; 50–4100 m. Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, n Channel Islands (Santa Cruz Island), Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains; worldwide. [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Cystopteris
Next taxon: Woodsia


Name search

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Cystopteris, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015

Copyright © 2014 Regents of the University of California
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Cystopteris fragilis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records


CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.