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ORCHIDACEAE ORCHID FAMILY

Ronald A. Coleman, Dieter H. Wilken & William F. Jennings, except as noted

Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other plants], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves ± reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1–many, basal to cauline, linear to ± round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1–many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
± 800 genera, ± 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. [Romero-Gonzalez et al. 2002 FNANM 26:490–651] Platanthera may be paraphyletic without inclusion of Piperia (Bateman et al. 2009 Ann Bot 104:431–445); study needed. —Scientific Editors: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Luer 1975 Orchids US and Can, NY Bot Garden; Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids of California. Cornell Univ.]

Key to Orchidaceae

CYPRIPEDIUM LADY'S-SLIPPER
Stem: often puberulent above. Leaf: cauline, lanceolate to ovate. Inflorescence: flowers 1–20; bracts ± leaf-like. Flower: lower sepals ± united [free], pendent behind lip; lateral petals downcurved to spreading, ± like upper sepal, twisted or not, lip pouch-like, generally obovoid, mouth ± puckered, margin inrolled; column curved over lip mouth, functional stamens 2, staminodes 1. Fruit: pendent to spreading, ribbed.
± 35 species: temperate North America, Eurasia; some cultivated for ornamental. (Greek: Venus foot, from lip shape) [Sheviak 1993 Amer Orchid Soc Bull 62:403]

Key to Cypripedium

C. fasciculatum Kellogg CLUSTERED LADY'S-SLIPPER
NATIVE
Plant 12–20 cm. Leaf: 2, opposite, 5–12 cm, wide-elliptic. Inflorescence: flowers 1–14, ± clustered, ± nodding. Flower: upper sepal 1.5–2.5 cm, lanceolate, ± green to brown, veins dark brown; lateral petals 15–25 mm, lanceolate, downcurved, lip 8–15 mm, yellow-green below, purple above; staminode < 5 mm, pale (± green) yellow.
2n=20. Mesic to moist, shady conifer forest; 100–2000 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada, sw San Francisco Bay Area; to Washington, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado. Mar–Jul [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

Previous taxon: Cypripedium californicum
Next taxon: Cypripedium montanum

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Aug 31 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Cypripedium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=21981, accessed on Aug 31 2014

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click for enlargement Cypripedium fasciculatum
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2003 Norman Jensen

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Cypripedium fasciculatum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.