Directory       News       Site Map       Home
         
    Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Previous taxon

CYPERACEAE SEDGE FAMILY

S. Galen Smith, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, often rhizomed or stoloned, often of wet open places; roots fibrous; monoecious, dioecious, or flowers bisexual. Stem: generally 3-sided, generally solid. Leaf: generally 3-ranked; base sheathing, sheath generally closed, ligule generally 0; blade (0 or) linear, parallel-veined. Inflorescence: spikelets generally arranged in head-, spike-, raceme-, or panicle-like inflorescences; flower generally sessile in axil of flower bract, enclosed in a sac-like structure (perigynium) or generally not. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, small, generally wind-pollinated; perianth 0 or generally bristle like; stamens generally 3, anthers attached at base, 4 chambered; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, style 2–3-branched. Fruit: achene, 2–3 sided.
± 100 genera, 5000 species: especially temperate. [Gilmour et al. 2013 Kew Bull 68:85–105] Difficult; taxa differ in technical characters of inflorescence, fruit. In Carex and Kobresia, what appear to be individual pistillate flowers in fact are highly reduced inflorescences (whether or not the same applies to staminate flowers is still under debate). In some other works (e.g., FNANM) these are called spikelets, and they are treated as being arranged in spikes. Here and in TJM (1993), what appear to be individual pistillate flowers are called pistillate flowers in Carex (and they are treated as being arranged in spikelets), but spikelets in Kobresia (and they are treated as being arranged into spikes). Though internally inconsistent, the approach here is consistent with traditional usage, and reflects a preference for character states that may be determined in the field. Molecular, morphological, and embryological evidence indicates that Eriophorum crinigerum is to be segregated to a new genus, as Calliscirpus criniger (A. Gray) C.N. Gilmour et al., along with a second, newly described species, Calliscirpus brachythrix C.N. Gilmour et al. (Gilmour et al. 2013); key to genera modified by Peter W. Ball to include Calliscirpus. —Scientific Editors: S. Galen Smith, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Ball et al. 2002 FNANM 23:1–608; Bruhl 1995 Australian Syst Bot 8:125–305; Tucker 1987 J Arnold Arbor 68:361–445;]

Key to Cyperaceae

CYPERUS FLATSEDGE, NUTSEDGE, GALINGALE

Gordon C. Tucker

Annual, perennial herb, glabrous. Stem: generally > 1, erect, 2–100 cm, 3-sided or cylindric. Leaf: basal; blade 0 or linear. Inflorescence: terminal, generally ± umbel-like, with spikes on rays; inflorescence bracts 1–9, leaf-like, spreading or erect; rays <= 20 cm; spikelets flat to not flat; flower bracts 2-ranked, 2–36, each with 1 flower in axil. Flower: bisexual; perianth 0; stamens (1–2) 3; stigmas 2–3. Fruit: (ob)ovoid, generally 3-angled, brown, generally not beaked.
± 600 species: temps, tropics worldwide. (Greek: name for European Cyperus longus) [Tucker 1994 Syst Bot Monogr 43:1–213] Mature fruit generally needed for identification. Cyperus gracilis R. Br., Cyperus owanii Boeck. [Cyperus ligularis L., misappl.], Cyperus regiomontanus Britton, Cyperus retrorsus Chapm., Cyperus virens Michx., urban weeds in California. Cyperus prolifer Lam. not in California.

Key to Cyperus

C. difformis L.
NATURALIZED
Annual 3–40 cm. Inflorescence: inflorescence bracts 2–3; rays 0–4, 6–30 mm; heads dense, ± spheric, ± yellow or ± purple; spikelets 50–100+, flat; flower bracts 6–30, 0.6–0.8 mm, obovate, yellow to yellow-brown. Flower: stigmas 3. Fruit: 0.6–0.8 mm, obovoid-ellipsoid, glossy.
Ditches, pond shores, rice fields; 100–500 m. Great Central Valley, Southwestern California; to Oregon, Utah, eastern North America; native to Old World. Jul–Nov [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Cyperus bipartitus
Next taxon: Cyperus eragrostis

Contact/Feedback

Name search

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Cyperus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=21811, accessed on Dec 22 2014

Copyright © 2014 Regents of the University of California
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.


Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Cyperus difformis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

 

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.