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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain (rarely achene-like).
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
Key to Poaceae
Annual, perennial herb. Stem: generally 1–8 dm, erect. Leaf: generally basal; ligule membranous, truncate, rough-edged, or ciliate; blade 3–15 cm, 2.5–14 mm wide, flat, glabrous to pubescent. Inflorescence: terminal, spike- or panicle-like, cylindric, ovoid to head-like, dense; spikelets laterally compressed, generally paired, subsessile to short-stalked, of 2 kinds, 1 sterile, 1 fertile. Fertile spikelet: bisexual; glumes ± equal, lanceolate, 1-veined, keeled, awn generally 0; florets 1–5; axis extended beyond uppermost floret, breaking above glumes and between florets; lemma back rounded, faintly 5-veined, awned [or not]; palea ± = lemma, 2-lobed. Sterile spikelet: sometimes obscuring fertile spikelet; glume narrow, linear; florets 6–18, axis not breaking apart; lemma narrow, lance-linear, rigid, 1-veined, awned or not.Key to Cynosurus
8 species: Europe, western Asia, northern Africa. (Greek: dog + tail, from shape of inflorescence) [Long 2007 FNANM 24:685–687]
Unabridged references: [Jirasek & Chrtek 1964 Novit Bot Delect Seminum Horti Bot Univ Carol Prag 1964:23–27; Lodge 1959 J Ecol 47:511–518]
Cespitose, ± puberulent. Stem: 1.5–8 dm; base sometimes abruptly bent. Leaf: ligule 0.5–2.5 mm, truncate; blade 0.5–2 mm wide. Inflorescence: 3–14 cm, < 1 cm wide; central axis ± zigzag, flat. Fertile spikelet: glume 3–5 mm, acute; florets 2–5. Sterile spikelet: glume ± flat; florets generally 6–11; lemma awn < 1 mm.
2n=14. Fields, disturbed places; < 300 m. North Coast, Central Coast, South Coast; to Washington, Montana; also northeastern North America; native to Europe. Sometimes cultivated for forage. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Cynosurus
Next taxon: Cynosurus echinatus
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 10 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Cynosurus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=21766, accessed on Mar 10 2014
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