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Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
Annual to perennial herb, generally erect. Stem: branches 0 or generally ascending to erect, hairy. Leaf: generally sessile; basal whorled, cauline generally alternate, reduced above (opposite below); generally strigose, rough-hairy, or bristly, largest bristles generally bulbous-based. Inflorescence: generally terminal, raceme- or generally spike-like cymes, in groups of 1–5 (> 5), generally coiled in bud, generally elongated in fruit; bracts generally 0. Flower: generally unscented, persistent or not; sepals fused at base; corolla tube generally 1–13 mm, limb 0.5–12 mm diam, generally white, appendages generally 5; anthers included; ovary generally 4-lobed. Fruit: pedicel 0 or < 12 mm in fruit; nutlets 1–4, generally gray to brown, smooth to granular, tubercled, or papillate, with abaxial, longitudinal ridge to not; margin rounded, sharp-edged, or a ± flat rim or wing; adaxially grooved above attachment scar, scar generally lateral, narrow, open to closed, raised or generally not, edges inrolled to sharp-angled, generally forked or flared open at base; central fruit axis ("axis") not reaching to extending beyond fruit.Key to Cryptantha
± 200 species: western North America, western South America, northeastern Asia (1 sp.). (Greek: hidden flowers, from cleistogamous flowers of some South American species) Generally homostylous. The tissue between ovary lobes, interpreted as a receptacle and/or style (style sometimes 0, then stigma attached to top of receptacle), extends to various degrees in fruit, forming what is often called the gynobase (here "fruit axis"), to which the nutlets are laterally attached at maturity, leaving an attachment scar. Annual species without yellow corolla appendages generally self-pollinating; perennial herb species generally homostylous in California. Some species, e.g., Cryptantha angustifolia, Cryptantha ambigua, Cryptantha barbigera, Cryptantha mariposae, hybridize with co-occurring species. Observation of nutlets, hairs best at 10+× generally critical for identification. Corolla limb diam generally < at end of flower period, especially for annual species Cryptantha sobolifera Payson does not occur in California.
Unabridged references: [Johnston 1925 Contr Gray Herbarium 74:1–125; Higgins 1971 Brigham Young Sci Bull Biol Ser 13:1–63, 1979 Great Basin Naturalist 39:293–350; Simpson & Hasenstab 2009 Crossosoma 35:1–59]
Perennial herb 5–20(25) cm, generally cespitose; caudex woody, generally branched. Stem: ± many, stout, gray-green; ± tomentose with sparse, spreading bristles. Leaf: basal rosettes generally many; 1–4 cm, spoon-shaped, ± notched to obtuse at tip, thick, gray-green, strigose to ± tomentose and sparse-bristly, abaxial bristles appressed, bulbous-based. Inflorescence: dense, ± cylindric; pedicel not elongated in fruit, 0–1.5 mm. Flower: calyx 2.5–4 mm, 5.5–7(8) mm in fruit, dense-bristly; corolla deciduous, limb 4–6 mm diam, appendages yellow. Fruit: nutlets 2–4, 3–4.8 mm, narrow-ovate (lanceolate), ± shiny, margin a ± flat narrow rim; abaxially convex, tubercled, wrinkled (± roughened), ridge rounded, generally lighter in color; adaxially ± smooth, attachment scar edges gapped (abutted near tip), edges not raised.
Pumice, ash, occasionally serpentine, generally conifer forest to subalpine; (1320)2050–2720 m. se Klamath Ranges (Scott Mtns to Mount Eddy), High Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau; to eastern Oregon, northern Nevada. Jul–Aug [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Cryptantha spithamaea
Next taxon: Cryptantha torreyana
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Feb 27 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Cryptantha, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=21303, accessed on Feb 27 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Cryptantha subretusa|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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