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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Robert E. Preston & Lauramay T. Dempster, except as noted

Annual to tree, vine. Leaf: generally opposite (whorled), entire; stipules generally fused to stem, adjacent pairs occasionally fused, or occasionally leaf-like and appearing like whorled leaves. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, spike, cluster, or flower 1, generally terminal and ± axillary. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx ± 4(5)-lobed, occasionally 0 (Galium, Crucianella) or 6 (Sherardia); corolla generally radial, 4(5)-lobed; stamens epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes, generally included; ovary generally inferior, chambers generally 2 or 4, style 1(2). Fruit: drupe, berry, or 2 or 4 nutlets [capsule].
± 500 genera, 6000 species: worldwide, especially tropics; many cultivated, including Coffea, coffee; Cinchona, quinine; many ornamental. [Robbrecht & Manen 2006 Syst & Geogr Plant 76:85–146] Diodia teres Walter doubtfully in California. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Dempster 1979 Fl California 4(2):1–47]

Key to Rubiaceae

Annual. Leaf: whorled, opposite in inflorescence. Inflorescence: spike; bracts overlapping, 3 per flower. Flower: calyx 0; corolla tubular, lobes 4–5, erect; style divided distally, stigmas spheric. Fruit: nutlets 2, wider distally.
35–40 species: Mediterranean to central Asia. (Latin: little cross, presumably from corolla lobes)

C. angustifolia L.
Plant erect or ± decumbent. Stem: 12–30 cm, 4-angled. Leaf: in whorls of 4, 8–25 mm, linear. Inflorescence: 2.5–7.5 cm, dense, narrow, 4-angled, ± grass-like; bracts scarious, rib green, tip sharp. Flower: corolla white or yellow. Fruit: glabrous.
2n=22. Disturbed areas in grassland, foothill woodland, yellow-pine forest; 30–1100 m. s Klamath Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, s Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada, e Sacramento Valley; Idaho; native to Europe. Apr–Jun [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Crucianella, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015

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click for enlargement Crucianella angustifolia
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1988 Dean Wm. Taylor

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Crucianella angustifolia Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.