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OROBANCHACEAE BROOMRAPE FAMILY

Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. [Bennett & Matthews 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1039–1051] High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Orobanchaceae

CORDYLANTHUS BIRD'S-BEAK

Margriet Wetherwax & David C. Tank

Annual, gray- or yellow-green, often becoming red-purple, generally much-branched; roots ± yellow. Leaf: sessile, entire, thread-like to lanceolate or palmately 3–7-lobed, segments narrow. Inflorescence: short dense spike (subtended by bracts), < 2(5) cm or flowers 1 (each subtended by outer bract); outer bracts ± leaf-like; inner bract calyx-like (formerly confused with calyx), 0–7-lobed. Flower: calyx sheath-like, generally divided to base abaxially, partially surrounding corolla tube laterally, tip entire or shallowly notched; corolla club-shaped, tubular proximally, expanded laterally; upper corolla lip folded lengthwise, tip rounded, closed, opening directed downwards forming a hood enclosing anthers, style; lower corolla lip <= upper lip, obscurely 3-lobed, middle lobe tightly rolled under, tip distinctly folded inside-out; fertile stamens (2)4, anther sacs generally 2 per stamen, densely hairy at both ends and ciliate along line of dehiscence, unequal in size and placement; style bent near tip, stigma barely exserted. Seed: attached at side; seed coat tight-fitting, netted or irregularly striate.
13 species: western North America. (Greek: club-shaped flower) [Tank et al. 2009 Syst Bot 34:182–197] Close to Orthocarpus, distinguished by inflorescence, calyx, stamens; generally flowers Jul–Sep. Other taxa in TJM (1993) moved to Chloropyron, Dicranostegia.
Unabridged references: [Chuang & Heckard 1986 Syst Bot Monogr 10:1–105; Tank & Olmstead 2008 Amer J Bot 95:608–625]

Key to Cordylanthus

C. pilosus A. Gray
NATIVE
Plant 20–120 cm, (gray-)green, generally tinged purple, densely puberulent (partly glandular) and long-soft-hairy. Leaf: 10–40 mm, linear to lanceolate. Inflorescence: flowers 1–3 in loose clusters; outer bracts 1–4, 15–20 mm, linear, entire or 3-lobed in distal 2/3, tips > 1.5 mm wide, angled to slightly 3-lobed, often ivory-thickened; inner bract 15–22 mm, tip abruptly pointed to notched. Flower: calyx 15–20 mm; corolla 15–20 mm, ± white, yellow-green-tipped, pouch 5–8 mm wide, ± lightly marked maroon. Seed: 1.5–2.5 mm, ± ovoid, finely wavy-striate, dark brown.
2n=28. Variable; close to Cordylanthus tenuis. [Online Interchange]

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Next taxon: Cordylanthus pilosus subsp. hansenii

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 24 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Cordylanthus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=20324, accessed on Apr 24 2014

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click for enlargement Cordylanthus pilosus
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2010 Jean Pawek

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.