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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Margriet Wetherwax & Dieter H. Wilken, family description, key to genera

Annual, perennial herb, woody vine [shrub], occasionally aquatic. Leaf: generally basal and cauline, alternate or opposite, simple or compound; petioles at base generally flat, occasionally sheathing or stipule-like. Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 3–6(20), free, early-deciduous or withering in fruit, generally green; petals 0–many, generally free; stamens generally 5–many, staminodes generally 0; pistils 1–many, ovary superior, chamber 1, style 0–1, generally ± persistent as beak, ovules 1–many. Fruit: achene, follicle, berry, ± utricle in Trautvetteria, in aggregate or not, 1–many-seeded.
± 60 genera, 1700 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate, tropical mountains; many ornamental (Adonis, Aquilegia, Clematis, Consolida, Delphinium, Helleborus, Nigella). some highly TOXIC (Aconitum, Actaea, Delphinium, Ranunculus). [Whittemore & Parfitt 1997 FNANM 3:85–271] Taxa of Isopyrum in TJM (1993) moved to Enemion; Kumlienia moved to Ranunculus. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Ranunculaceae


Bruce A. Ford & Dieter H. Wilken

Perennial herb, generally glabrous. Stem: short, simple, stout, scaly. Leaf: 1–2-ternate or -pinnate, basal, petioled. Inflorescence: scapose, generally 1–4-flowered. Flower: bisexual or some staminate; sepals 5–8, petal-like, early-deciduous; petals 5–7, clawed, club-like with nectary at tip, or linear with nectary near base; pistils 4–15, short-stalked. Fruit: follicles, stalked, in umbel-like clusters, glabrous, walls papery, ± translucent. Seed: tan to dark brown, shiny, generally appearing wrinkled.
± 10 species: temperate North America, eastern Asia. (Greek: cut, from leaves) Petals sometimes considered modified staminodes.

C. laciniata A. Gray OREGON GOLDTHREAD
Plant 11–24 cm; rhizomes or stolons slender, pale brown. Leaf: 3–8, generally 1(2)-ternate; leaflets ovate to triangular, terminal stalked or not, lobes generally 3, deeply, irregularly toothed to cut. Inflorescence: peduncle 5–10 cm, < leaves, in fruit to 25 cm, > leaves; pedicels 1.5–3 cm, elongated in fruit. Flower: sepals 6–11 mm, linear; petals 4–7 mm, claw ± thread-like, limb linear. Fruit: 5–11, stalk 4–7 mm, body 8–13 mm.
Wet sites, seeps, streambanks, conifer forest; 500–2000 m. North Coast, w Klamath Ranges; to Washington. Mar–Apr [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 29 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Coptis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 29 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Coptis laciniata Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.