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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to perennial herb (to tree). Leaf: cauline or basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled, generally simple and toothed (to pinnately compound); stipules 0 or generally deciduous. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1 in axils; bracted. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, often opening at either dawn or dusk; hypanthium generally prolonged beyond ovary (measured from ovary tip to sepal base); sepals 4(2–7); petals 4(2–7, rarely 0), often fading darker; stamens 2 × or = sepals in number, anthers 2-chambered, opening lengthwise, pollen interconnected by threads; ovary inferior, chambers generally as many as sepals (sometimes becoming 1), placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma 4-lobed (or lobes as many as sepals), club-shaped, spheric, or hemispheric. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal (sometimes berry or indehiscent and nut-like). Seed: sometimes winged or hair-tufted.
22 genera, ± 657 species: worldwide, especially western North America; many cultivated (Clarkia, Epilobium, Fuchsia, Oenothera). [Wagner et al. 2007 Syst Bot Monogr 83:1–240] Gaura moved to Oenothera. Fuchsia magellanica Lam. naturalized in northern California. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Munz 1965 North America Fl II 5:1–278]
Key to Onagraceae
Annual < 1.5 m. Stem: prostrate to erect, glabrous, often glaucous, or puberulent (hairs long, spreading). Leaf: pinnately veined; petiole < 4 cm or 0; blade 1–10 cm, linear to elliptic or ovate, entire or shallow-toothed, glabrous or sparsely puberulent. Inflorescence: spike, raceme; bracts leaf-like; axis in bud straight or recurved at tip, in flower ± straight; buds erect or not. Flower: hypanthium obconic to cup-shaped, or long, slender, generally with ring of hairs within; sepals 4, generally fused to tip in bud, reflexed at least at base, staying fused at least at tip, in 4s or 2s, or all coming free; corolla bowl-shaped to rotate, petals 5–60 mm, often lobed or clawed, lavender or pink to dark red, pale yellow, or white, often spotted, flecked, or streaked with red, purple, or white; stamens 8, in 2 like or unlike series, or 4, filaments cylindric to wider distally, subtended by ciliate scales or generally not, anthers attached at base, pollen white or yellow to blue-gray, lavender, or ± red; ovary 4-chambered, glabrous or not, cylindric, fusiform, or wider distally, generally shallowly to deeply 4- or 8-grooved, stigma lobes 4, generally prominent. Fruit: generally capsule, elongate (short, indehiscent, nut-like). Seed: generally many, rarely 1–2, 0.5–2 mm, angled, crested or not, brown, gray, or mottled.Key to Clarkia
± 41 species: western North America, 1 South America. (Captain William Clark, 1770–1838, of Lewis & Clark Expedition) [Lewis & Lewis 1955 Univ Calif Publ Bot 20:241–392] Self-fertile; self-pollinated or outcrossed; on herbarium specimens, curvature of inflorescence axis in bud generally reliable, pollen color generally not.
Stem: erect, < 8 dm, puberulent. Leaf: petiole < 3 mm or 0; blade 1.5–7 cm, linear to narrowly lanceolate. Inflorescence: axis in bud straight; buds erect. Flower: hypanthium 1.5–4 mm, not slender; sepals staying fused in 4s; corolla bowl-shaped, petals 5–15 mm, obovate, pale pink to dark wine-red, often purple-flecked or -marked; stamens 8, anthers alike; ovary 8-grooved, length > 9 × width, stigma not exserted beyond anthers. Fruit: 1.5–3 cm; beak 3–7 mm, cylindric and grooved when immature.
n=26. Openings in woodland, chaparral; < 500 m. Inner North Coast Ranges, c Sierra Nevada Foothills, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast Ranges, Western Transverse Ranges. May–Jun [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Clarkia
Next taxon: Clarkia amoena
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 29 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Clarkia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=19563, accessed on Jul 29 2014
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© 2001 Gary A. Monroe
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