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Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally ± persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs.
300 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Apiaceae
Perennial herb, glabrous; rhizome internally chambered, sap becoming ± red-brown in air, fibrous- or tuberous-rooted. Stem: erect, hollow. Leaf: blade oblong to triangular-ovate, 1–3-pinnate or ternate-pinnate, leaflets linear to lance-ovate, serrate or irregularly cut. Inflorescence: umbels compound; bracts generally 0; bractlets generally inconspicuous; rays, pedicels many, spreading. Flower: calyx lobes minute; petals wide, white, tips narrowed. Fruit: ovoid to spheric, ± compressed side-to-side; ribs low, corky, occasionally unequally spaced; oil tube 1 per rib-interval; fruit axis divided to base. Seed: face flat or concave.Key to Cicuta
± 4 species: Eurasia, North America. (Ancient Latin name) TOXIC: the most lethally toxic native plant species. [Lee & Downie 2006 Canad J Bot 84:453–468]
Unabridged references: [Mulligan 1980 Canad J Bot 58:1755–1767]
Unabridged note: Both species below contain cicutoxin, a strong poison; many livestock and human deaths recorded.
Plant 15–30 dm. Leaf: 1.5–4.5 dm, narrowly ovate to triangular-ovate, 1–2(3)-pinnate; leaflets 1–10(15) cm, linear to widely lanceolate, acute or acuminate, ± entire to coarsely serrate, areas surrounded by veins on abaxial surface rough-textured, generally some elongate. Inflorescence: umbels compound, terminal and lateral; peduncles 2–18 cm; rays 15–30(35), 2–8 cm; pedicels 20–30, 2–10 mm. Fruit: 2–4 mm, generally round; rib width >> intervals between.
2n=44. Wet places, generally aquatic; < 2800 m. North Coast, High North Coast Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, s Sierra Nevada Foothills, High Sierra Nevada, Central Coast, South Coast, Great Basin Floristic Province; to British Columbia, Montana. Jun–Sep [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Cicuta
Next taxon: Cicuta maculata
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Feb 1 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Cicuta, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=19447, accessed on Feb 1 2015
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© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Cicuta douglasii|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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