|University of California, Berkeley|
|Directory News Site Map Home|
|Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
Key to Poaceae
Annual, perennial herb, cespitose, rhizomatous or stoloniferous. Stem: decumbent to erect, 1–7 dm. Leaf: ligule membranous or hairy-tufted; blade generally 10–50 cm, 0.2–1.5 cm wide, flat. Inflorescence: generally digitate; branches 2–30, sometimes in distinct whorls, each raceme- or spike-like branch with 2 rows of overlapping spikelets on 1 side of axis. Spikelet: laterally compressed; glumes unequal, < florets, 1–3-veined; axis breaking above glumes; lower florets fertile, 1–2, upper florets sterile or staminate, 1–4, < 1/2 lower floret length; fertile floret lemma ovate to lanceolate, back glabrous, midvein hairy, 3-veined, awn 1; palea < lemma, translucent, obscure; anthers 3. Fruit: ± fusiform, 3-angled.Key to Chloris
± 50 species: warm temperate, tropics worldwide, especially southern hemisphere. (Greek: goddess of flowers)
Unabridged references: [Anderson 1974 Brigham Young Univ Sci Bull Biol Ser 19:1–133; Barkworth 2003 FNANM 25:204–218]
Annual. Stem: generally 1–7 dm. Leaf: sheath glabrous to hairy near collar; ligule glabrous to hairy; blade < 30 cm, 1.5 cm wide. Inflorescence: digitate; branches 4–20, ± erect, 5–10 cm. Spikelet: 1.5–4.5 mm; glumes acute, lower 1.5–3 mm, 0.2–0.5 mm wide, upper 2.5–4.5 mm, 0.3–0.5 mm wide; fertile floret 1, 2.5–4 mm, 0.5–1.5 mm wide, ovate, obovate, or elliptic, keel hairy near tip, margin generally hairy-tufted, awn 2.5–15 mm; sterile floret 1, 1.5–3 mm, awn 3–10 mm. Fruit: 1.5–2 mm.
2n=20,26,30,40. Disturbed areas; < 200 m. Great Central Valley, Outer South Coast Ranges, South Coast, Peninsular Ranges, Desert; to southern Great Plains, southeastern United States, northern Mexico; native to warm temperate regions worldwide. Apr–Sep [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Chloris verticillata
Next taxon: Cinna
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 31 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Chloris, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=19274, accessed on Mar 31 2015
Copyright © 2014 Regents of the University of California
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Chloris virgata|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
View elevation by latitude chart
| Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
CCH collections by month