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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: bark often peeling distinctively. Leaf: simple or 0, generally cauline, alternate, opposite (whorled), evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers 1, terminal or axillary, generally bracted; pedicel often with 2 bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, bell-shaped, cylindric, or urn-shaped; sepals generally (0)4–5, generally free; petals generally (0)4–5, free or fused; stamens (2–5)8–10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers dehiscing by pores or slits, awns 0 or 2(4), seemingly abaxial, reduced or elongate, generally curved; nectary generally present at ovary base, generally disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1–5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry. Seed: generally many, winged or not.
± 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium. [Kron et al. 2002 Bot Rev 68:335–423] Monophyletic only if Empetraceae included, as treated here. Ledum included in Rhododendron. Non-green plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates. —Scientific Editors: Gary D. Wallace, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Ericaceae
Perennial herb, ± woody, evergreen, rhizomed. Leaf: cauline [basal], ± whorled, lanceolate to oblanceolate, leathery, generally prominently toothed, petioled. Inflorescence: terminal, ± head- or umbel-like raceme; flowers 1–10; peduncle generally papillate to glandular-hairy; bracts narrowly lanceolate to widely ovate. Flower: radial, nodding, parts in 5s, free; petals spreading; stamens 10, filaments widened at base, ± hairy, anther pores on tubes; nectary present; ovary superior, style in depression, stout, stigma wide, peltate, lobes 5, ± flat, spreading. Fruit: capsule, erect; valves opening tip to base, margins not fibrous.Key to Chimaphila
4–5 species: circumboreal, North America, Central America, Eurasia. (Greek: winter loving, from evergreen habit)
Stem: < 30 cm, stout. Leaf: > several per node, generally 3–7 cm, toothed, especially toward tip; veins not bordered. Inflorescence: ± densely glandular-hairy. Flower: petals pink to red; filament base margins hairy.
2n=26. Common. Dry conifer forest; 300–2900 m. Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains, Modoc Plateau; to eastern North America, Central America; Eurasia. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Chimaphila menziesii
Next taxon: Comarostaphylis
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 18 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Chimaphila, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=19222, accessed on Dec 18 2014
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Chimaphila umbellata|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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