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Annual to shrub; hairs simple, stellate, or glandular; plants in several genera scaly, mealy, or powdery from collapsed glands; monoecious, dioecious, with bisexual flowers, or with both bisexual and unisexual flowers. Stem: occasionally fleshy. Leaf: blade simple, generally alternate, occasionally fleshy or reduced to scales, veins pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, catkin-like, spheric head, axillary clusters of flowers, or flowers 1; bracts 0–5, herbaceous, generally persistent or strongly modified in fruit, wings, tubercles or spines present or 0. Flower: bisexual or unisexual, small, generally green; calyx parts (1)3–5, or 0 in pistillate flowers, free or fused basally (or ± throughout), leaf-like in texture, membranous, or fleshy, deciduous or not, often strongly modified in fruit; corolla 0; stamens 1–5, opposite sepals, filaments free, equal; anthers 4-chambered; ovary superior (1/2-inferior), chamber 1; ovule 1; styles, stigmas 1–4 (or stigmas sessile). Fruit: achene or utricle, generally falling with persistent calyx or bracts. Seed: 1, small, lenticular to spheric; seed coat smooth to finely dotted, warty, net-like, or prickly, margin occasionally winged.
100 genera, 1500 species: worldwide, especially deserts, saline or alkaline soils; some cultivated for food (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, beet, Swiss chard; Spinacia oleracea L., spinach; Chenopodium quinoa Willd., quinoa); and some worldwide, naturalized ruderal or noxious agricultural weeds. Nitrophila treated in Amaranthaceae, Sarcobatus treated in Sarcobataceae. Key to genera revised by Elizabeth H. Zacharias to incorporate Extriplex and Stutzia, 2 genera segregated from Atriplex. —Scientific Editors: Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Chenopodiaceae
Annual or perennial herb, glabrous or powdery. Stem: branches 0 to generally erect (spreading). Leaf: generally petioled; blade linear to deltate or diamond-shaped, entire to lobed or toothed, reduced distally on stem; proximal leaves generally early-deciduous. Inflorescence: spheric clusters or flower 1, in spikes, or panicle-like, generally dense; bracts generally 0; flowers generally sessile. Flower: sepals generally 5, fused or not, persistent, flat to keeled; stamens generally 5; stigmas 2(5). Fruit: enclosed or subtended by calyx; fruit wall membranous or papery, free or attached to seed and generally loosening in age. Seed: vertical or horizontal, lenticular to ± spheric, red-brown to black; wall thin.Key to Chenopodium
± 100 species: temperate; some cultivated for food or grain. (Greek: goose foot, from leaf shape of some species) [Clemants & Mosyakin 2003 FNANM 4:275–299] Fruit generally required for identification. Other species in TJM (1993) now treated in Dysphania.
Unabridged references: [Crawford 1975 Brittonia 27:279–288; Wahl 1954 Bartonia 27:1–46]
Unabridged note: Powder on plants from small, inflated hairs.
Annual 5–60 cm. Leaf: blade 7–75 mm, lanceolate to narrowly triangular or deltate, base 2-lobed to hastate; leaves oblong to lanceolate, glabrous, generally deeply and irregularly toothed, base tapered. Inflorescence: spheric clusters 3–8 mm diam, in unbranched terminal and axillary spikes 5–30 cm, leafy-bracted throughout. Flower: sepals 3(4), lobes obovate, ± red in age, smooth, generally glabrous, enclosing fruit only at base; stamen generally 1. Fruit: 1–1.5 mm diam; wall attached to seed; maturing from base to top of plant. Seed: vertical, round, dark red or brown, margin ridged.
Open, gravelly or sandy soils, disturbed ground; < 1800 m. High Cascade Range, c High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, w Mojave Desert; to western Canada, northeastern United States; native to Europe. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Chenopodium desiccatum
Next taxon: Chenopodium fremontii
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Chenopodium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=19167, accessed on Apr 23 2014
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