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RUBIACEAE MADDER FAMILY

Robert E. Preston & Lauramay T. Dempster, except as noted

Annual to tree, vine. Leaf: generally opposite (whorled), entire; stipules generally fused to stem, adjacent pairs occasionally fused, or occasionally leaf-like and appearing like whorled leaves. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, spike, cluster, or flower 1, generally terminal and ± axillary. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx ± 4(5)-lobed, occasionally 0 (Galium, Crucianella) or 6 (Sherardia); corolla generally radial, 4(5)-lobed; stamens epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes, generally included; ovary generally inferior, chambers generally 2 or 4, style 1(2). Fruit: drupe, berry, or 2 or 4 nutlets [capsule].
± 500 genera, 6000 species: worldwide, especially tropics; many cultivated, including Coffea, coffee; Cinchona, quinine; many ornamental. [Robbrecht & Manen 2006 Syst & Geogr Plant 76:85–146] Diodia teres Walter doubtfully in California. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Dempster 1979 Fl California 4(2):1–47]

Key to Rubiaceae

CEPHALANTHUS BUTTON BUSH
Shrub, small tree. Leaf: opposite or in whorls of 3; stipules not leaf-like. Inflorescence: head, dense-spheric, peduncled. Flower: calyx 4-lobed; corolla narrowly funnel-shaped; style thin, exserted, stigma ± spheric. Fruit: nutlets 2–4, dry, brown, wider distally.
± 17 species: warm-temperate America, Asia, southern Africa. (Greek: head flower)

C. occidentalis L. CALIFORNIA BUTTON WILLOW
NATIVE
Plant 2–10 m. Stem: young stems round, ± red, glabrous. Leaf: 7–20 cm, elliptic to ovate, petioled, glabrous in age. Inflorescence: 3–3.5 cm; peduncle 2.5–5 cm. Flower: corolla white or ± yellow, tube slender, lobes obtuse; stigma long-exserted.
Lake, stream edges; < 1000 m. se Klamath Ranges, Inner North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada Foothills, c High Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, reported from Outer South Coast Ranges, Modoc Plateau; Arizona, eastern North America, Mexico, Central America. If recognized taxonomically, California plants assignable to Cephalanthus occidentalis var. californicus Benth. May–Sep [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 16 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Cephalanthus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=18612, accessed on Apr 16 2014

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Bioregions in which Cephalanthus occidentalis occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.