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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other plants], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves ± reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1–many, basal to cauline, linear to ± round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1–many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
± 800 genera, ± 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. [Romero-Gonzalez et al. 2002 FNANM 26:490–651] —Scientific Editors: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Luer 1975 Orchids US and Can, NY Bot Garden; Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids of California. Cornell Univ.]
Key to Orchidaceae
Plant ± scapose. Leaf: at flower 0. Inflorescence: raceme; bracts sheathing, ± scale- to leaf-like, narrow-elliptic. Flower: sepals free, lower generally ± curved over column; lip not spurred, generally < lateral petals, generally narrowed at middle, concave or folded below middle, tip ± spreading to reflexed; column subcylindric, anther head-like, short-stalked. Fruit: generally erect.
± 15 species: especially Eurasia. (Greek: head-like anther) Some species ± subterranean; closely related to Epipactis.
Plant 20–55 cm, white, becoming ± yellow or brown. Flower: white; sepals 12–20 mm, elliptic to oblanceolate, acute; lip folded lengthwise, below middle lobed, above reflexed, with a yellow, papillate spot; column 6–9 mm, anther stalk ± hinge-like.
Decomposed litter of rich soil in mixed-evergreen or conifer forest; < 2200 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area, n Outer South Coast Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges; to British Columbia, Idaho. Mar–Jul [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Cephalanthera
Next taxon: Corallorhiza
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 7 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Cephalanthera, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=18611, accessed on Mar 7 2014
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