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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Abigail J. Moore & Lauramay T. Dempster, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, occasionally strongly scented, odor generally unpleasant. Leaf: simple to pinnately lobed or compound; petioles generally sheathing; basal ± whorled; cauline opposite, petioled to sessile. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, or head-like, generally ± dense. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx fused to ovary tip, limb 0 or lobes generally 5–15, coiled inward, plumose in age, pappus-like, spreading in fruit; corolla radial to 2-lipped, lobes generally 5, throat generally > lobes, > tube, base generally spurred or swollen, tube slender, long or short; stamens generally 1–3, fused to petals; ovary inferior, chamber generally 1, or occasionally 3 but 2 empty or vestigial. Fruit: achene, smooth, ribbed, or winged.
± 17 genera, 300 species: generally temperate, worldwide except Australia. Some species cultivated (Centranthus), some medicinal (Valeriana). [Bell & Donoghue 2005 Organisms Diversity Evol 5:147–159] —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Valerianaceae

Annual, perennial herb (in California). Stem: 1–many; base occasionally woody. Leaf: generally cauline, simple, entire to lobed [toothed]. Inflorescence: cyme, clustered, ± dense, open in age; terminal or axillary. Flower: calyx lobes 5–15, coiled inward, plumose in age, spreading, persistent in fruit; corolla ± funnel-shaped, lobes ± unequal, spreading, tube long, slender, long-spurred; stamen 1. Fruit: ± compressed; adaxial surface 1-veined, abaxial surface 3-veined.
12 species: Mediterranean. (Greek: spurred flower)

C. ruber (L.) DC. RED VALERIAN
Plant glabrous, glaucous; base generally woody. Stem: decumbent to erect, simple or branched, 3–9 dm, hollow. Leaf: 5–8 cm, blades widely oblong to lance-elliptic, acute to rounded, entire, occasionally lobed at base; proximal petioled, distal sessile. Flower: corolla 14–18 mm, generally ± purple-red, occasionally lavender or white; spur (3)4–6 mm. Fruit: 3–4 mm, glabrous.
2n=14. Disturbed places, rock or wall crevices, roadsides; < 1500 m. s North Coast, Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Great Central Valley, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, Southwestern California, cultivated elsewhere; native to Mediterranean Europe. Apr–Jul [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 28 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Centranthus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 28 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Centranthus ruber Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.