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BRASSICACEAE (Cruciferae) MUSTARD FAMILY

Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, except as noted

Annual to shrub; sap pungent, watery. Leaf: generally simple, alternate; generally both basal, cauline; stipules 0. Inflorescence: generally raceme, generally not bracted. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 4, generally free; petals (0)4, forming a cross, generally white or yellow to purple; stamens generally 6 (2 or 4), 4 long, 2 short (3 pairs of unequal length); ovary 1, superior, generally 2-chambered with septum connecting 2 parietal placentas; style 1, stigma entire or 2-lobed. Fruit: capsule, generally 2-valved, "silique" (length >= 3 × width) or "silicle" (length < 3 × width), dehiscent by 2 valves or indehiscent, cylindric or flat parallel or perpendicular to septum, segmented or not. Seed: 1–many, in 1 or 2 rows per chamber, winged or wingless; embryo strongly curved.
± 330 genera, 3780 species: worldwide, especially temperate. [Al-Shehbaz et al. 2006 Plant Syst Evol 259:89–120] Highest diversity in Mediterranean area, mountains of southwestern Asia, adjacent central Asia, western North America; some Brassica species are oil or vegetable crops; Arabidopsis thaliana used in experimental molecular biology; many species are ornamentals, weeds. Aurinia saxatilis (L.) Desvaux in cultivation only. Aubrieta occasional waif in central North Coast Ranges, Carrichtera annua (L.) DC. in South Coast, Iberis sempervirens L., Iberis umbellata L. in Peninsular Ranges, Teesdalia coronopifolia (Bergeret) Thell., Teesdalia nudicaulis (L.) W.T. Aiton in southern Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast. Cardaria, Coronopus moved to Lepidium; Caulostramina to Hesperidanthus; Guillenia to Caulanthus; Heterodraba to Athysanus; California taxa of Lesquerella to Physaria; Malcolmia africana to Strigosella. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Brassicaceae

CAULANTHUS JEWELFLOWER
Annual to perennial herb, glabrous or hairs simple (forked). Leaf: basal rosetted or not, petioled, entire, dentate or pinnately lobed, generally deciduous; cauline petioled, or sessile with bases lobed or sagittate. Inflorescence: elongated. Flower: calyx urn-shaped or cylindric, sepals erect (spreading), base sac-like or not; petals yellow, purple, brown, or white, generally channeled, margin wavy or not; stamens in 3 pairs of equal length, or 4 long and 2 short, (all equal), free or filaments of longer pair(s) fused. Fruit: silique, linear, dehiscent, unsegmented, ± sessile, cylindric (flat perpendicular or parallel to septum); stigma entire or 2-lobed. Seed: 24–210, 1 row per chamber, oblong to ovate (± spheric), plump, wing 0.
17 species: southwestern United States, northwestern Mexico. (Greek: stem flower, in reference to insertion of flowers along stem)

Key to Caulanthus

C. major (M.E. Jones) Payson
NATIVE
Perennial herb from woody caudex, glabrous, or petioles, sepals occasionally hairy. Stem: erect, 2–10 dm, simple or branched distally (± inflated). Leaf: basal rosetted, persistent; blade 1–14 cm, entire or dentate to pinnately lobed; distal short-petioled, much reduced, linear to narrowly oblanceolate, entire, base not lobed. Inflorescence: terminal sterile flower cluster 0. Flower: sepals erect, 6.5–9.5 mm, creamy white to purple; petals 11–17 mm, purple, margins not wavy; stamens 4 long, 2 short, filaments free. Fruit: erect to ascending, 4.5–12 cm, 2.2–2.8 mm wide, cylindric or only ± flattened; style 0.05–0.2(0.4) mm, stigma ± 2-lobed, lobes opposite valves; pedicel ascending, 1–6 mm. Seed: 46–58, 2–3.5 mm, oblong; cotyledons entire.
2n=28. ± dry, generally rocky slopes, sagebrush, pinyon/juniper woodland; 1500–3200 m. n High Sierra Nevada (Alpine Co.), San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, s Modoc Plateau, e Desert Mountains (Providence, New York mtns); southeastern Oregon, northern and western Nevada, eastern Utah. [Caulanthus major var. nevadensis Rollins] May–Jul [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Streptanthus major (M.E. Jones) Jeps.]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Caulanthus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=18407, accessed on Oct 23 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Caulanthus major Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.