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OROBANCHACEAE BROOMRAPE FAMILY

Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. [Bennett & Matthews 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1039–1051] High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Orobanchaceae

CASTILLEJA PAINTBRUSH, OWL'S-CLOVER

Margriet Wetherwax, T.I. Chuang & Lawrence R. Heckard

Annual to subshrub, green. Leaf: sessile, entire to dissected. Inflorescence: spike-like; bracts becoming shorter, wider, more lobed than leaves, mature tips generally cream to red or green. Flower: calyx unequally 4-lobed, colored like bract tips; corolla upper 2 lip lobes fused, beak-like, tip open, lower lip reduced, 3-toothed to -pouched; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; stigma entire to 2-lobed, generally exserted. Fruit: ± asymmetric. Seed: generally ± brown, attached at base; coat netted, net-like walls ladder-like or not.
± 200 species: especially western North America. (Domingo Castillejo, Spanish botanist, 1744–1793) [Tank & Olmstead 2008 Amer J Bot 95:608–625] Hybridization and polyploidy common. Biologically consistent taxa difficult to define. Castilleja chrymactis Pennell not in California, sole (1947) record a misidentified, incomplete specimen.
Unabridged references: [Chuang & Heckard 1991 Syst Bot 16:644–666]

Key to Castilleja

C. mendocinensis (Eastw.) Pennell MENDOCINO COAST PAINTBRUSH
NATIVE
Perennial herb, decumbent to ascending, 40–60 cm, much-branched, gray-green, shaggy-bristly, nonglandular. Stem: with leafy axillary shoots. Leaf: 5–20 mm, ± fleshy, oblong to rounded; lobes 0–3, truncate-rounded. Inflorescence: 5–20 cm; bracts 15–20 mm, widely wedge-shaped to widely obovate, lobes 0–3, bright red to orange-red, central lobe wide; tip truncate-rounded. Flower: calyx 20–25 mm, divided 1/2 abaxially and adaxially, < 1/8 on sides, shaggy-hairy (some hairs glandular); corolla 30–45 mm, beak 15–25 mm, adaxially shaggy-puberulent, margin ± red, lower lip 2 mm, dark green, ± included; stigma club-shaped, entire. Fruit: 15–20 mm. Seed: 2–2.5 mm; coat deeply netted, most walls ladder-like.
Coastal scrub; < 100 m. c North Coast (Mendocino Co.). Threatened by coastal development. May–Aug [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}
Unabridged synonyms: [Castilleja latifolia subsp. mendocinensis Eastw.]

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Next taxon: Castilleja miniata

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Castilleja, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=18246, accessed on Nov 23 2014

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click for enlargement Castilleja mendocinensis
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1994 Gary A. Monroe

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Castilleja mendocinensis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.