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Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. [Bennett & Matthews 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1039–1051] High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Orobanchaceae
Annual to subshrub, green. Leaf: sessile, entire to dissected. Inflorescence: spike-like; bracts becoming shorter, wider, more lobed than leaves, mature tips generally cream to red or green. Flower: calyx unequally 4-lobed, colored like bract tips; corolla upper 2 lip lobes fused, beak-like, tip open, lower lip reduced, 3-toothed to -pouched; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; stigma entire to 2-lobed, generally exserted. Fruit: ± asymmetric. Seed: generally ± brown, attached at base; coat netted, net-like walls ladder-like or not.Key to Castilleja
± 200 species: especially western North America. (Domingo Castillejo, Spanish botanist, 1744–1793) [Tank & Olmstead 2008 Amer J Bot 95:608–625] Hybridization and polyploidy common. Biologically consistent taxa difficult to define. Castilleja chrymactis Pennell not in California, sole (1947) record a misidentified, incomplete specimen.
Unabridged references: [Chuang & Heckard 1991 Syst Bot 16:644–666]
Perennial herb 30–100 cm, few-branched, ± yellow to gray-green, generally becoming ± purple, glabrous to slightly puberulent. Leaf: 20–80 mm, linear, margins folded upward; lobes 0–3, narrow, < calyx. Inflorescence: 5–20 cm, open below; bracts 15–30 mm, generally narrowly 3-lobed, < calyx, bright red to yellow. Flower: calyx 20–35 mm, divided 2/3 abaxially, ± 1/3 adaxially, ± 1/8 on sides, puberulent, lobes curved upward, acute; corolla 25–45 mm, beak ± = tube, yellow-green, adaxially sparsely puberulent, margins red, lower lip 2–3 mm, dark green; stigma slightly 2-lobed. Fruit: 10–15 mm. Seed: 1.5–2 mm; coat shallowly netted, loose-fitting, side walls ladder-like.
2n=24,48. Dry plains, rocky slopes, sagebrush scrub or pinyon/juniper woodland; 1000–3350 m. Cascade Range, e slope High Sierra Nevada, Transverse Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, Mojave Desert; to Oregon, Montana, New Mexico. Jun–Sep [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Castilleja lemmonii
Next taxon: Castilleja lineariloba
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 25 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Castilleja, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=18234, accessed on Apr 25 2015
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© 2003 Christopher L. Christie
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Castilleja linariifolia|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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