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Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. [Bennett & Matthews 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1039–1051] High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Orobanchaceae
Annual to subshrub, green. Leaf: sessile, entire to dissected. Inflorescence: spike-like; bracts becoming shorter, wider, more lobed than leaves, mature tips generally cream to red or green. Flower: calyx unequally 4-lobed, colored like bract tips; corolla upper 2 lip lobes fused, beak-like, tip open, lower lip reduced, 3-toothed to -pouched; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; stigma entire to 2-lobed, generally exserted. Fruit: ± asymmetric. Seed: generally ± brown, attached at base; coat netted, net-like walls ladder-like or not.Key to Castilleja
± 200 species: especially western North America. (Domingo Castillejo, Spanish botanist, 1744–1793) [Tank & Olmstead 2008 Amer J Bot 95:608–625] Hybridization and polyploidy common. Biologically consistent taxa difficult to define. Castilleja chrymactis Pennell not in California, sole (1947) record a misidentified, incomplete specimen.
Unabridged references: [Chuang & Heckard 1991 Syst Bot 16:644–666]
Perennial herb 8–30 cm, white-woolly; hairs simple. Leaf: 20–60 mm, lance-linear, lobes 0–5. Inflorescence: 3–12 cm; bracts 10–25 mm, white-woolly, lobes generally 3–5, obtuse, dull yellow to rusty red. Flower: calyx 12–18 mm, ± equally divided ± 1/2, lobes lance-linear; corolla 12–20 mm, beak 3–5 mm, lower lip 2–4 mm, pouches shallow, pale green or purple-red, teeth pale yellow; stigma ± exserted, notched, dark. Fruit: 8–12 mm. Seed: ± 1 mm; coat shallowly netted, loose-fitting.
2n=24. Open summits, dry rocks; 1300–3300 m. Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau; southwestern Oregon. [Castilleja arachnoidea subsp. shastensis Pennell] Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Castilleja applegatei subsp. pinetorum
Next taxon: Castilleja attenuata
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 6 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Castilleja, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=18171, accessed on Mar 6 2014
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