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Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted.
99 genera, 2060 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate and Africa. [Bennett & Matthews 2006 Amer J Bot 93:1039–1051] High yield losses in many crops caused by Orobanche species in Africa, Mediterranean, Middle East, and eastern Europe. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Orobanchaceae
Annual to subshrub, green. Leaf: sessile, entire to dissected. Inflorescence: spike-like; bracts becoming shorter, wider, more lobed than leaves, mature tips generally cream to red or green. Flower: calyx unequally 4-lobed, colored like bract tips; corolla upper 2 lip lobes fused, beak-like, tip open, lower lip reduced, 3-toothed to -pouched; stamens 4, anther sacs 2, unequal; stigma entire to 2-lobed, generally exserted. Fruit: ± asymmetric. Seed: generally ± brown, attached at base; coat netted, net-like walls ladder-like or not.Key to Castilleja
± 200 species: especially western North America. (Domingo Castillejo, Spanish botanist, 1744–1793) [Tank & Olmstead 2008 Amer J Bot 95:608–625] Hybridization and polyploidy common. Biologically consistent taxa difficult to define. Castilleja chrymactis Pennell not in California, sole (1947) record a misidentified, incomplete specimen.
Unabridged references: [Chuang & Heckard 1991 Syst Bot 16:644–666]
Perennial herb 15–45 cm, few-branched, gray-green, hairs ± bristly, unbranched, nonglandular. Leaf: 20–70 mm, lance-linear; lobes (0)3–5, widely spreading. Inflorescence: 4–15 cm; bracts 20–30 mm, lobes 3–5, bright red to ± yellow-orange. Flower: calyx 15–25 mm, divided 1/4–1/3 abaxially and adaxially, ± 1/7 on sides, long-nonglandular- and short-glandular-hairy, lobes obtuse to rounded; corolla 20–35 mm, beak ± = tube, ± yellow-green, adaxially puberulent, margins ± red, lower lip 2–3 mm, dark green, included; stigma 2-lobed. Fruit: 10–15 mm. Seed: 1.5–2 mm; coat deeply netted, most walls ladder-like.
2n=24,48. Dry sagebrush scrub, pinyon/juniper woodland; < 3000 m. High Cascade Range, s High Sierra Nevada, ne San Bernardino Mountains, Great Basin Floristic Province, Mojave Desert; to Oregon, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico. [Castilleja angustifolia (Nutt.) G. Don, misappl.] May–Sep [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Castilleja campestris subsp. succulenta
Next taxon: Castilleja cinerea
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Castilleja, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=18160, accessed on Dec 22 2014
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© 2012 Gary A. Monroe
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Castilleja chromosa|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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