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SIMAROUBACEAE QUASSIA or SIMAROUBA FAMILY

Robert E. Preston & Elizabeth McClintock

Shrub, tree; generally dioecious. Stem: occasionally thorny; bark often bitter. Leaf: generally alternate, simple, entire, or pinnately compound, leaflets subentire to toothed near base. Inflorescence: panicle, raceme, or flowers 1. Flower: unisexual, inconspicuous; sepals generally 4–5, generally fused at base, generally erect; petals generally 5, free, generally spreading; stamens generally 10, generally on disk, filaments often with a basal scale; pistils 1–8, ovaries superior, 1–2-chambered, 1-ovuled [if pistil 1, chambers generally 2–5, 1-ovuled], styles free or partly fused. Fruit: winged achenes or drupes [berry, nut], in clusters [not].
22 genera, 100 species: tropics, warm temperate; some cultivated. [Clayton et al. 2007 Int J Plant Sci 168:1325–1339] Bark, leaves used traditionally to treat malaria, other ailments. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Brizicky 1962 J Arnold Arbor 43:173–186; Fernando & Quinn 1995 Taxon 44:177–181]

Key to Simaroubaceae

CASTELA
Leaf: linear to lanceolate on young stems, scale-like on mature. Flower: calyx lobes 4–8; petals 4–8; stamens 8–24; ovaries 4–8, adherent near middle, style bases fused, tips spreading. Fruit: dry, 4–8, spreading.
± 15 species: southwestern and south-central United States, to South America. (René R.L. Castel, French botanist, poet, editor, opera librettist, 1759–1832) Holacantha still recognized by some (e.g., Clayton et al. 2007).
Unabridged references: [Moran & Felger 1968 Trans San Diego Soc Nat Hist 15:31–40]

C. emoryi (A. Gray) Moran & Felger EMORY'S CRUCIFIXION-THORN
NATIVE
Plant often < 1 m, occasionally to 4+ m, intricately branched; young parts densely puberulent. Leaf: ephemeral, rarely seen. Inflorescence: panicle, much-branched, 2.5–5 cm, stiff. Flower: 6–8 mm diam. Fruit: ± 6 mm, flat-topped; base ± rounded, sometimes persisting several years. Seed: 1.
Dry, gravelly washes, slopes, plains; ± 650 m. s Mojave Desert (except Desert Mountains), Sonoran Desert; Arizona, northwestern Mexico. Common name used for 2 other desert plants. Jun–Jul [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}
Unabridged synonyms: [Holacantha emoryi A. Gray]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 2 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Castela, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=18147, accessed on Sep 2 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Castela emoryi Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.