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Shrub, tree; monoecious. Leaf: odd-(even-)1-pinnate, alternate, deciduous; stipules 0. Inflorescence: catkin, generally appearing before leaves, 1 or clustered; flowers generally 1 in bract axils. Staminate inflorescence: pendent, elongate, many-flowered, on last year's twigs. Pistillate inflorescence: erect; flowers 1–many, at tip of new twigs. Staminate flower: calyx [0 or] lobes generally 4 [2, 6]; petals 0; stamens 3–40; pistil 0 or vestigial. Pistillate flower: calyx  or lobes 4; petals 0; stamens 0; ovary 1, inferior, chamber 1 above, generally 2 below, styles 2, plumose. Fruit: nut enclosed in husk or winged nutlets.
9 genera, > 60 species: northern temperate, subtropical mountains; some ornamental, cultivated for wood, nuts (Carya hickory, pecan; Juglans walnut). [Stone 1997 FNANM 3:416–428] In Carya, Juglans, husk included in fruit diam, even though derived from involucre, calyx, and therefore not technically part of fruit. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Elias 1972 J Arnold Arbor 53: 26–51]
Key to Juglandaceae
Stem: Bark furrowed in age, gray; twig centers not chambered; buds scaly. Pistillate inflorescence: flowers 1–few; in fruit erect. Pistillate flower: styles short. Fruit: husk enclosing 1–3 unwinged nuts, splitting longitudinally, separating from fruit.
± 17 species: eastern North America, eastern Mexico, eastern Asia. (Greek: nut)
Tree to 45 m. Stem: bark shallowly to deeply furrowed; terminal buds 6–7 mm, brown, scales valvate. Leaf: leaflets (7)9–13, lanceolate, 110–160 mm, 28–43 mm wide, sickle-shaped, acuminate. Staminate inflorescence: ± sessile. Fruit: 3–4 cm, 1.5–2 cm diam, elliptic to ± cylindric, with four low wings along sutures; shell smooth.
Riparian forest, watercourse margins; < 600 m. San Joaquin Valley, South Coast; eastern Texas, Louisiana to Illinois, Indiana. Apr–May [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: See ICPN for discussion of variant spellings of epithet.
Previous taxon: Carya
Next taxon: Juglans
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Carya, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=17995, accessed on Nov 23 2014
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Carya illinoinensis|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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