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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to shrub; sap pungent, watery. Leaf: generally simple, alternate; generally both basal, cauline; stipules 0. Inflorescence: generally raceme, generally not bracted. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 4, generally free; petals (0)4, forming a cross, generally white or yellow to purple; stamens generally 6 (2 or 4), 4 long, 2 short (3 pairs of unequal length); ovary 1, superior, generally 2-chambered with septum connecting 2 parietal placentas; style 1, stigma entire or 2-lobed. Fruit: capsule, generally 2-valved, "silique" (length >= 3 × width) or "silicle" (length < 3 × width), dehiscent by 2 valves or indehiscent, cylindric or flat parallel or perpendicular to septum, segmented or not. Seed: 1–many, in 1 or 2 rows per chamber, winged or wingless; embryo strongly curved.
± 330 genera, 3780 species: worldwide, especially temperate. [Al-Shehbaz et al. 2006 Plant Syst Evol 259:89–120] Highest diversity in Mediterranean area, mountains of southwestern Asia, adjacent central Asia, western North America; some Brassica species are oil or vegetable crops; Arabidopsis thaliana used in experimental molecular biology; many species are ornamentals, weeds. Aurinia saxatilis (L.) Desvaux in cultivation only. Aubrieta occasional waif in central North Coast Ranges, Carrichtera annua (L.) DC. in South Coast, Iberis sempervirens L., Iberis umbellata L. in Peninsular Ranges, Teesdalia coronopifolia (Bergeret) Thell., Teesdalia nudicaulis (L.) W.T. Aiton in southern Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast. Cardaria, Coronopus moved to Lepidium; Caulostramina to Hesperidanthus; Guillenia to Caulanthus; Heterodraba to Athysanus; California taxa of Lesquerella to Physaria; Malcolmia africana to Strigosella. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Brassicaceae
Annual to perennial herb, from taproots, fibrous roots, or tuber-like rhizomes; hairs 0 or simple. Leaf: alternate, opposite, or whorled; entire to palmately, pinnately lobed, or compound; cauline leaves petioled or 0, not lobed at base [lobed]. Inflorescence: elongated, bracts generally 0. Flower: sepals erect (spreading), bases sac-like or not; petals white, pink, purple, or violet. Fruit: silique, linear, flat parallel to septum, dehiscent, unsegmented; valves generally coiling when dehiscent; placental margins flattened. Seed: (4)10–80, in 1 row, wingless.Key to Cardamine
± 200 species: temperate, worldwide. (Greek: for cress) Some North American species (e.g., Cardamine californica, Cardamine nuttallii, Cardamine pachystigma) highly variable, more study needed; species treated conservatively here. Cardamine flexuosa With. a waif in gardens, nurseries.
Unabridged note: Some North American species (e.g., Cardamine californica, Cardamine nuttallii, Cardamine pachystigma) highly variable and numerous minor variants were recognized as varieties. C ritical studies of these complexes reveal that only a fraction of the overall continuous variation was formally recognized. Without detailed molecular and cytological studies, a broader sp. concept is adopted herein.
Perennial herb, glabrous, or sparsely hairy near base; rhizome slender, 1–3(4) mm wide, cylindric. Stem: decumbent to erect, simple to branched, (0.6)1.5–6(7) dm. Leaf: rhizome leaves 0; cauline 3–8(11), 2.5–12(13.5) cm; leaflets (1)3–5, terminal ovate to round (± cordate), margin crenate, dentate, or lobed, lateral leaflets smaller. Flower: sepals 2–3(3.8) mm; petals 3.5–6(7) mm, 1.5–2.5(3) mm wide, white. Fruit: erect, 1.5–3.5 cm, 1–1.5 mm wide; style 0.2–1.5(2.5) mm; pedicel ascending to spreading, (0.7)1–2 cm. Seed: 14–28, 1–1.5 mm, oblong.
2n=42–48. Wet places, conifer forest; 400–3200 m. n Northwestern California, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Western Transverse Ranges, San Bernardino Mountains, Warner Mountains, East of Sierra Nevada; to British Columbia, Montana, Colorado. [Cardamine breweri var. orbicularis (Greene) Detling] Jun–Jul [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Cardamine bellidifolia
Next taxon: Cardamine californica
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 20 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Cardamine, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=17125, accessed on Apr 20 2014
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© 2011 Ron Wolf
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