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CAMPANULACEAE BELLFLOWER FAMILY

Nancy R. Morin, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [tree]. Leaf: generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers 1; terminal or in axils of leaf-like or reduced bracts. Flower: bisexual, cleistogamous or open, radial or bilateral, inverted (pedicel twisted 180°) or not; hypanthium generally present, ± fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, petals generally fused, tube deeply divided on 1 side or not, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or ± fused (anthers, filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior or 1/2 inferior (superior in fruit), chambers 1–3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2–5-branched. Fruit: generally capsule, open on sides or top by pores or short valves. Seed: many.
± 90 genera, ± 2500 species: worldwide. [Haberle et al. 2008 J Molec Evol 66:350–361] Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia). Subfamilies sometimes treated as families. Positions of flower parts given after flowering inversion, if any. Parishella moved to Nemacladus. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Lammers 2007 World Checklist and Bibliography of Campanulaceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.]

Key to Campanulaceae

CAMPANULA HAREBELL
Annual, perennial herb, from taproot, fibrous roots, or rhizome, hairs 0 to dense. Stem: reclining or erect, branched, 2–60[150] cm, 4-angled. Leaf: basal or not, cauline, generally lanceolate to ovate, thin, fleshy, or leathery, entire to toothed, sessile or petioled, gradually reduced distally to bracts in inflorescence. Inflorescence: raceme and/or flowers 1 [head, spike, panicle]; terminal or axillary. Flower: not inverted; corolla cylindric to funnel- or bell-shaped, white to deep blue, cut 1/4–2/3 [to all the way] to base, lobes narrow- to wide-triangular; ovary inferior, hemispheric, spheric, or oblong to obconic. Fruit: open by 2–3 lateral pores. Seed: 0.6–3.5 mm, oblong or fusiform.
± 400 species: northern hemisphere; many cultivated, some medicinal. (Latin: little bell, from corolla shape) [Roquet et al. 2008 Syst Bot 33:203–217] Campanula prenanthoides moved to Asyneuma.
Unabridged references: [Morin 1980 Madroño 27:149–163]
Unabridged note: Campanula medium L. collected in 2000 from landfill northern of Baldwin Lake, San Bernardino Mountains, but probably not reproducing.

Key to Campanula

C. shetleri Heckard CASTLE CRAGS HAREBELL
NATIVE
Perennial herb, cespitose, densely short-appressed-hairy. Stem: < 5 cm. Leaf: 6–7 mm, ± 6-sided, leathery; teeth few, large, petiole 1–2 mm. Flower: pedicel 1–4 mm; sepals ascending to erect (erect in fruit); corolla 7–10.5 mm, pale blue to white, lobes recurved to spreading; stamens 4–6.5 mm, base ciliate; ovary 2.5–4 mm, oblong, style 7–8 mm, blue, distal 33% papillate. Fruit: cup-shaped; base 3-lobed, weakly ribbed; pores between middle, top.
n=17. Rock crevices; 1300–1500 m. e Klamath Ranges (Castle Crags). Jun–Sep [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 24 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Campanula, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=16996, accessed on Oct 24 2014

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click for enlargement Campanula shetleri
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2000 John Game

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Campanula shetleri Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.