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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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POACEAE (Gramineae) GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted

Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]

Key to Poaceae

CALAMAGROSTIS REED GRASS

Paul M. Peterson, Jeffery M. Saarela & Craig W. Greene

Perennial herb, generally from rhizomes. Stem: 1–15 dm, generally not branched, ± smooth; nodes (1)2–8. Leaf: generally basal and cauline; sheath smooth or scabrous; ligule membranous; blade flat to inrolled. Inflorescence: panicle-like, open to dense; branches ± drooping to appressed; spikelets ascending to appressed. Spikelet: glumes subequal, generally lanceolate, acute to acuminate, lower generally 1-veined, upper 3-veined; floret 1, breaking above glumes; axis prolonged beyond floret, hairy; callus hairy; lemma < glumes, awned from below middle to near base, tip generally 4-toothed, veins 3–5, awn straight to twisted, bent; palea ± = lemma, thin.
± 265 species (including Deyeuxia): cool temperate (especially moist montane); some forage value. (Greek: reed grass) [Marr et al. 2007 FNANM 24:706–732] Hybridization, polyploidy (diploids unknown), and asexual seed set contribute to taxonomic difficulty.
Unabridged references: [Greene 1980 Ph.D. Dissertation Harvard Univ]

Key to Calamagrostis

C. koelerioides Vasey DENSE-PINE REED GRASS
NATIVE
Cespitose, rhizomes 2–6 cm, 2–4 mm thick, stout. Stem: 6–10+ dm, nodes 3–5. Leaf: sheath ± scabrous; scabrous or smooth near collar; ligule 3–7 mm; blade 3–7 mm wide, flat or inrolled, scabrous or smooth. Inflorescence: 5–16 cm, generally dense; branches generally < 3 cm, appressed. Spikelet: glumes 4–6 mm, scabrous especially on keel; axis ± 1 mm, hairs 1–2 mm; callus hairs < 2 mm, sparse, tufted; lemma (3.5)4–5.5(6) mm, awned near base; awn 4–5.5 mm, < 1 mm exserted beyond the glume tips or ± = glume tips, stiff, twisted, bent.
2n=28. Meadows, slopes, dry hills, ridges; < 2300 m. Northwestern California, Central Western California, Peninsular Ranges; to Washington, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming. Larger plants like Calamagrostis nutkaensis. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Calamagrostis densa Vasey]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Calamagrostis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=16557, accessed on Dec 22 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Calamagrostis koelerioides Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.