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Thomas J. Rosatti

Perennial herb, aquatic, rhizomes in mud. Stem: elongate, leafy, ends floating. Leaf: of 2 kinds: submersed, palmately dissected, opposite [whorled], short-petioled, not peltate; floating, simple, alternate, petioled, peltate, entire; stipules 0. Inflorescence: flowers 1 on long axillary peduncles, generally on or above water surface. Flower: bisexual, parts ± free; sepals, petals each 3[4], alternate, persistent; stamens 3–6 or 18–36(51), filaments slender, anthers opening lengthwise; carpels [1]2–18, ovaries superior, 1-chambered, ovules [1]2–3[5]. Fruit: achene- or follicle-like, indehiscent. Seed: 1–3, aril 0.
2 genera, 6 species: temperate, tropical America, Africa, eastern Asia, Australia; some Cabomba species cultivated for aquaria. [Taylor & Osborn 2006 Amer J Bot 93:344–356] Separation from Nymphaeaceae (carpels fused, fruits berry-like) confirmed by molecular data (Les et al. 1999 Syst Bot 24:28–46). —Scientific Editors: Bruce G. Baldwin, Robert E. Preston.
Unabridged references: [Les et al. 1999 Syst Bot 24:28–46; Taylor & Osborn 2006 Amer J Bot 93:344–356; Wiersema 1997 FNANM 3:78–80]
Unabridged note: Pollinated by wind (Brasenia) or insects (Cabomba).

Key to Cabombaceae

Leaf: blade ± >= petiole; submersed leaves dissected into many ± thread-like to linear segments. Flower: perianth white to ± yellow [purple]; carpels [1]3[4], stigmas head-like. Seed: 1–3.
5 species: generally tropical America. (Probably aboriginal)

C. caroliniana A. Gray
Leaf: submersed petiole 7–30(40) mm, blade 10–40 mm, (15)30–60 mm wide, ± deltate to reniform; floating 0–few, 6–20(30) mm, 1–4 mm wide, linear-elliptic, ± entire, base ± notched. Flower: sepals (5)7–12 mm, white or cream; petals ± > sepals, colored as sepals except base with 2 ± yellow nectaries. Fruit: 4–7 mm.
2n=±78,±104. Ponds, slow streams; 0 m. San Joaquin Valley; Oregon; native to eastern United States (except northern part of range), southern South America. Reportedly spreading rapidly in Sacramento Delta, expected widely. May–Sep {Noxious weed} [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Cabomba
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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Cabomba, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Cabomba caroliniana Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.