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BURSERACEAE TORCHWOOD FAMILY

Duncan M. Porter

Tree [shrub]; generally dioecious or monoecious. Stem: generally erect, < 15 m. Leaf: simple or compound, cauline, generally alternate, deciduous, petioled; leaf axis often winged; hairs dense to 0. Inflorescence: generally panicle or flowers 1. Flower: radial; generally unisexual, disk ring- or cup-shaped; sepals 3–5, generally united below; petals [0–2]3–5; stamens generally 1–2 × number of petals; ovary superior, chambers 2–5, style 0 or 1. Fruit: drupe or capsule; stones 1–5, 1-seeded.
18 genera, ± 700 species: worldwide especially tropics; some cultivated (Boswellia, frankincense; Commiphora, myrrh; Bursera, Protium, copal). [Weeks et al. 2005 Molec Phylogen Evol 35:85–101] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

BURSERA ELEPHANT TREE, TOROTE, COPAL
Tree, aromatic; dioecious. Stem: < 10 m; bark smooth, shedding. Inflorescence: panicle. Flower: petals inserted beneath disk; stamens 10; ovary chambers 2–3. Fruit: drupe-like when young, capsule-like in age, valves [2]3.
± 100 species: tropics, subtropical America. (Joachim Burser, German physician, botanist, 1583–1639) [Porter 1974 Madroño 22:273–276]

B. microphylla A. Gray LITTLELEAF ELEPHANT TREE
NATIVE
Stem: < 4 m; branches spreading, generally red; mature bark white. Leaf: odd-1-pinnate, 2–8 cm, glabrous; leaf axis winged; leaflets 7–33, 2–5[10] mm. Flower: staminate flowers 3–5-parted, pistillate flowers 3-parted; sepals ± 5 mm; petals ± 4 mm, white to cream. Fruit: 5–8 mm; valves 3; stone yellow.
Rocky slopes; < 700 m. w edge Sonoran Desert (e San Diego, w Imperial, Riverside cos.); to Arizona, Mexico. Populations local. Bursera hindsiana (Benth.) Engl. (some leaves simple; Baja California Sur, western Sonora) reported but not confirmed for Peninsular Ranges (s San Diego Co.). May–Jun [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 21 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Bursera, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=16431, accessed on Apr 21 2014

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Bioregions in which Bursera microphylla occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.