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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to woody per; roots generally fibrous.
Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid.
Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base.
Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets).
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets ( lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma.
Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose.
Fruit: grain (rarely achene-like).
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in CA from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for s CA (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
Key to Poaceae
Annual to perennial herb.Key to Bromus
Leaf: basal and cauline; sheath closed to near top, hairy or glabrous; ligule <= 7 mm, membranous, entire to fringed; blade flat to inrolled.
Inflorescence: generally raceme- or panicle-like, open to dense; pedicels generally stiff, rigid.
Spikelet: strongly laterally compressed to cylindric; florets 3–30; axis breaking above glumes and between florets; glumes unequal, generally < lower floret, lower 1–3-veined, upper 3–7-veined, back rounded to strongly keeled, tip acute; lemma 5–9-veined, tip 2-toothed or entire, acute to obtuse, awned from between teeth or awns 0; palea generally < lemma.
± 160 species: temperate worldwide. (Greek: ancient name) [Pavlick and Anderton 2007 FNANM 24:193–237; Saarela et al. 2007 Aliso 23:450–467] Bromus scoparius L., Bromus erectus Huds. not known to be naturalized in CA. Bromus pacificus Shear not in CA.
Unabridged note: Report in FNANM of Bromus pacificus Shear (in HSC) based on misidentification.
Perennial 60–125 cm.
Leaf: sheath glabrous or hairy; ligule 0.4–1(2) mm; blade 2–9 mm wide, glabrous, hairy on margin, or hairy throughout.
Inflorescence: 7.5–20 cm; branches erect to spreading.
Spikelet: 15–35 mm, not strongly flattened; glumes scabrous or hairy, lower 4–7 mm, 3-veined, upper 6–9 mm, 5-veined, lemma 10–12.5 mm, back rounded, hairy across back or only on margin, teeth < 1 mm, awn 2–5.5 mm; anthers 3.5–5.5 mm.
2n=14. Shaded or semi-shaded sites in chaparral, coastal-sage scrub, open woodland; 100–900 m. Inner North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California.
Previous taxon: Bromus porteri
Next taxon: Bromus racemosus
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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Chart based on elevation range in Manual and elevations and coordinates of CCH records.
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
Note: About half of the CCH records include both elevation and coordinates.
| Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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