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THEMIDACEAE BRODIAEA FAMILY

J. Chris Pires, except as noted

Perennial herb from corm, outer coat fibrous [membranous]. Leaf: basal, 1–10, linear to narrow-lanceolate. Inflorescence: scapose, generally umbel-like; scape erect, generally 1(2), cylindric, generally rigid, occasionally wavy to twining; flower bracts 2–4[10], not enclosing flower buds. Flower: perianth parts 6 in 2 petal-like whorls, free or ± fused below into tube; staminodes 0 or 3; stamens 3 or 6, free or fused to perianth, occasionally appendaged; ovary superior, chambers 3, ovules 2–several per chamber. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal.
10–11 genera, 60–70 species: western North America. [Pires & Sytsma 2002 Amer J Bot 89:1342–1359] —Scientific Editors: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Themidaceae

BRODIAEA

J. Chris Pires & Robert E. Preston

Daughter corms often present. Leaf: generally 1–6, linear, generally crescent-shaped in ×-section, glabrous, entire, often withered at flower. Inflorescence: open; scape 2–70 cm, generally slender, generally straight, cylindric; bracts scarious; pedicels generally > flowers, generally < 13 cm. Flower: perianth tube bell- to funnel-shaped, green-white, lobes erect to spreading, violet to lavender, occasionally pink, midribs purple or green; staminodes (0)3, generally ± erect, opposite outer lobes, white to violet or lavender, lateral margins flat, incurved, or inrolled; stamens 3, equal, fused to perianth, opposite inner lobes, filaments occasionally winged or appendaged, free or fused basally to staminodes, generally not forming crown-like tube, anthers attached at base, appressed to style, abaxially papillate; style 1, stigma lobes 3, spreading and recurved. Fruit: sessile, ovoid. Seed: oblong, black, lined, angles ridged.
± 18 species: mostly endemic to California. (James Brodie, Scottish botanist, 1744–1824) [Preston 2006 Novon 16:254–259] Several undescribed taxa, hybrids under study. Brodiaea matsonii R.E. Preston described from Shasta Co., 2010.
Unabridged references: [Preston 2006 Madroño 53:46–54; Chester et al. 2007 Madroño 54:187–198]

Key to Brodiaea

B. coronaria (Salisb.) Engl. GARLAND BRODIAEA
NATIVE
Inflorescence: scape 5–25 cm; pedicel <= 7 cm. Flower: perianth 23–37.5 mm, tube 8.5–13.5 mm, cylindric, lobes 14–25 mm, violet, ascending, tips recurved, outer 3.5–5.5 mm wide, inner 5–8 mm wide; staminodes leaning toward but not appressed to stamens, 7.5–12 mm, generally white, flat or incurved below tip, tips obtuse; filaments 3–6 mm, anthers 4.5–7 mm; ovary 6–10 mm, style 6.5–11 mm.
n=12,24,42. Vernal pools, grassland; 30–760 m. Cascade Range Foothills, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, Sacramento Valley; to British Columbia. Apr–Jun [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Brodiaea coronaria subsp. coronaria has been misapplied to plants with tightly inrolled staminodes that are appressed to the stamens. At least 2 such groups are morphologically, ecologically distinguishable, one in montane meadows in Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, Modoc Plateau, southern Oregon, the other in grassland in Sacramento Valley, northern San Joaquin Valley. In addition, California plants morphologically similar to Brodiaea coronaria from the Pacific Northwest differ in chromosome number and may represent separate lineages of hybrid origin. Study needed.

Previous taxon: Brodiaea californica
Next taxon: Brodiaea elegans subsp. elegans

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Aug 21 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Brodiaea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=16141, accessed on Aug 21 2014

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click for enlargement Brodiaea coronaria
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© 2004 Robert E. Preston, Ph.D.

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Brodiaea coronaria Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.