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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain (rarely achene-like).
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
Key to Poaceae
Annual, perennial herb, generally cespitose. Stem: solid, generally glabrous. Leaf: generally basal; ligule generally < 1 mm, generally hairy; blade flat to inrolled, adaxial surface generally puberulent or short-hairy, often ciliate near ligule, hairs long, bulbous-based. Inflorescence: generally panicle-like; branches spike-like, 1 per node, persistent or deciduous in fruit; spikelets 2-rowed on 1 side of axis, overlapping. Spikelet: sessile or short-stalked, ± cylindric to laterally compressed; glumes generally unequal, generally lanceolate, 1-veined, upper glume firmer than lower; axis (if inflorescence branch persistent) breaking between glumes and lower floret; florets generally 2–3, lower floret bisexual, > upper, upper floret(s) generally reduced, sterile; lemma 3-veined, generally 3-awned, awns straight, scabrous; palea ± = lemma.Key to Bouteloua
57 species: America. (Claudio (b. 1774) and Esteban (b. 1776) Boutelou, Spanish botanists, horticulturists) [Columbus 1999 Aliso 18:61–65] Many species important for forage.
Perennial herb, generally short-rhizomed. Stem: ascending to erect, 1–6 dm. Leaf: blade < 15 cm, < 2 mm wide. Inflorescence: branches 1–3, 10–50 mm, spreading to appressed, persistent in fruit; branch axis terminated by vestigial spikelet, base hairy; spikelets 20–80 per branch, spreading to ascending, breaking apart between glumes and lower floret. Spikelet: upper glume 3.5–6 mm, generally with long, bulbous-based hairs on vein, acute or awned < 0.5 mm; florets 2–3; lower floret lemma ± = upper glume, base hairy-tufted, back hairy, tip 2-lobed, awns 1–3 mm, unequal, central awn from sinus; base of middle or, if only 2 florets, upper floret hairy-tufted, lobed between awn bases, awns 2.5–6 mm, ± equal; uppermost floret (if present) < 2 mm, awn 0.
2n=20,21,28,35,40,42,60,61,77,84. Sandy to rocky slopes, flats, drainages, scrub, woodland, pine forest; < 2700 m. San Bernardino Mountains, e Desert Mountains (Mid Hills, Clark Mtn Range, Ivanpah, New York mtns), waif elsewhere; to southern Canada, eastern United States, southern Mexico, Argentina. May–Oct [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Bouteloua gracilis (Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths
Previous taxon: Bouteloua eriopoda
Next taxon: Bouteloua trifida
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 16 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Bouteloua, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=15978, accessed on Apr 16 2014
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