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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Perennial, small, fleshy, generally glabrous; caudex generally underground, unbranched; roots glabrous with bulblets or plantlets or not.
Leaf: generally 1 per caudex per yr, divided into 2 facing parts with a common stalk,(0)1 sterile and 1(2) fertile ( fertile occasionally aborted); sterile photosynthetic part (trophophore) separated from spore-bearing part (sporophore) at to well above ground level; trophophore simple to compound, veins free and forked or netted with included veinlets; sporophore simple to compound, or 0 in young plants.
Sporangia: dehiscent into 2 valves, ± 1 mm wide, thick-walled.
10 genera, 80–100 species: ± worldwide, generally rare or overlooked. [Hauk et al. 2003 Molec Phylogen Evol 28:131–151; Kato 1987 Gard Bull Straits Settlem 40:1–14] —Scientific Editors: Alan R. Smith, Bruce G. Baldwin, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged note: Distantly related to most (leptosporangiate) ferns. Haploid (gametophyte) generation underground. Both diploid and haploid generations obligately mycorrhizal. The family Psilotaceae (whisk ferns, 2 genera), sister to Ophioglossaceae, is represented in CA (SCo) by 1 (of 2 total) apparently introduced species, Psilotum nudum (L.) P. Beauv. Psilotum is easily distinguished by the dichotomously branching, almost leafless green stems, lack of roots, and large (2–3 mm) 3-lobed sporangia; sporangia are borne on the adaxial (upper) side of a minute (± 1 mm) forked leaf. Pantrop, subtrop (nearest native populations in AZ and in Sonora, Mex); expected in cultivation areas, especially at bases of old palms, possibly brought in on root masses as subterranean gametophytes. [Pryer et al. 2004 Amer J Bot 91:1582–1598]
Key to Ophioglossaceae
Roots smooth, pale yellow, without bulblets or plantlets.Key to Botrychium
Leaf: deciduous; bud glabrous; sporophore and trophophore (or 2 sporophores) joined at or well above ground level; trophophore generally 1–2- pinnate ( simple or entire or 0), linear to deltate to ternately triangular, thin to fleshy, pinnae ovate to oblong and midribbed or wedge- to fan-shaped and not midribbed, veins free, forked; sporophore 1–2- pinnate, rarely absent.
Sporangia: not sunken in axis; stalk 0 or short.
25–35 species: generally temperate to arctic or alpine. (Greek: bunch of grapes, from clusters of sporangia) [Stensvold 2007 Ph.D. Dissertation, Iowa State Univ; Wagner & Wagner 1993 FNANM 2:85–106] Difficult, needs study; most species uncommon, sporadic; good sampling of populations highly desirable in specimens, which must be carefully spread and pressed for identification. Botrychium multifidum moved to Sceptridium. Botrychium pedunculosum W.H. Wagner, differing from Botrychium pinnatum in having trophophore stalk ± = trophophore rachis (vs trophophore stalk 0 to 1/10 trophophore rachis), recently confirmed for CA, based on discovery in summer of 2010 near Reynolds Creek, w of Yosemite National Park, Calaveras Co.
Leaf: sporophore, trophophore joined distal to mid- leaf; trophophore stalk 0–3(6) mm, blade 1- pinnate, 1–4 cm, < 1.5 cm wide, oblong to narrowly deltate-ovate, thin but firm, green to white-green, pinnae well separated, ascending, 3–6 pairs, linear or fan-shaped, deeply cleft into linear segments, not midribbed, side margins of simple pinnae or segments of cleft pinnae not converging or converging at < 20°, outer margins entire to coarsely and bluntly toothed, basal pinnae occasionally with scattered marginal sporangia; sporophore 1–2- pinnate, oblong to deltate, branches stiff, ascending, strongly overlapping, stalk 0.2–0.5 × trophophore, sporangia crowded.
2n=90. Moist meadows; 2500–4000 m. c&s High Sierra Nevada;
Previous taxon: Botrychium crenulatum
Next taxon: Botrychium lunaria
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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Chart based on elevation range in Manual and elevations and coordinates of CCH records.
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
Note: About half of the CCH records include both elevation and coordinates.
| Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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