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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain (rarely achene-like).
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
Key to Poaceae
Perennial herb, cespitose. Stem: erect; nodes generally short-hairy. Leaf: basal and cauline; ligule membranous; blade flat or folded. Inflorescence: panicle-like; branches ± digitate or racemes, long-soft-hairy; axis segments grooved, breaking with age. Spikelet: paired, dorsally compressed; sessile spikelet bisexual, glumes > florets, membranous, florets 2, lower vestigial, upper fertile, lemma translucent, tip awned; stalked spikelet staminate or sterile, pedicel hairy; spikelet pair and subtending axis segment breaking as a unit. Fruit: oblong to fusiform.Key to Bothriochloa
± 35 species: worldwide, warm temperate, tropics. (Greek: pit, from pitted glumes of some species) Cult for forage, revegetation. Reports of Bothriochloa exaristata (Nash) Henrard from Los Angeles Co. are unverified. Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica (Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Celarier & J.R. Harlan, infraspecific taxa not recognized.
Unabridged references: [Allred & Gould 1983 Syst Bot 8:168–184]
Stem: clumped, 6–12 dm. Leaf: basal and cauline; blade 20–30 cm. Inflorescence: 7–14 cm; branches many, 4–9 cm, generally tan; axis segment with a wide membranous groove. Spikelet: stalked > sessile, sessile 4.5–7.5 mm, lower glume occasionally pitted on back, lemma awn 2–3 cm; stalked 3–4 mm.
2n=180. Dry, gravelly slopes; < 1200 m. South Coast, s Channel Islands, Western Transverse Ranges, San Gabriel Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, Desert Mountains, Sonoran Desert; to Colorado, Oklahoma, Texas, Mexico. [Andropogon barbinodis Lag.] Feb–Sep [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Bothriochloa
Next taxon: Bothriochloa ischaemum
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 18 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Bothriochloa, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=15890, accessed on Apr 18 2014
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