|University of California, Berkeley|
|Directory News Site Map Home|
|Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Annual to shrub, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, appendages 0 or 5 at top of tube, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
Annual [perennial herb], bristly to rough-hairy. Stem: ascending to erect. Leaf: cauline, ± petioled, ovate to oblanceolate, entire. Inflorescence: cymes, terminal, 2–3-flowered; pedicels ± spreading to pendent in fruit. Flower: calyx deep-5-lobed; corolla rotate to bell-shaped, lobes spreading, throat appendages erect, glabrous; stamens exserted, filament base dilated, anthers adherent around style, separating in age. Fruit: nutlets ± erect, 4, stout, obovoid, irregularly tubercled, exposed stipe-like basal attachment scar, rim of attachment scar thickened.
4 species: southern Europe, northern Africa. (Latin: ancient name)
Generally branching above; taprooted. Stem: 2–7 dm. Leaf: lower blades 8–20 cm, 3–8 cm wide. Flower: calyx lobes 8–10 mm, 10–15 mm in fruit, linear; corolla rotate, bright blue, limb 18–20 mm diam; anthers 5–8 mm, dark brown. Fruit: nutlets 5–7 mm, ± oblong.
2n=16. Open, disturbed sites; < 550 m. Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast; widespread United States; native to southern Europe. Ornamental, cultivated for bees (nectar source), potherb. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Borago
Next taxon: Cryptantha
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 26 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Borago, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=15875, accessed on Nov 26 2014
Copyright © 2014 Regents of the University of California
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.
See CalPhotos for additional images
© 2009 Neal Kramer
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Borago officinalis|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
View elevation by latitude chart
| Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
CCH collections by month