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URTICACEAE NETTLE FAMILY

Robert E. Preston & Dennis W. Woodland

Annual, perennial herb [to shrub, soft-wooded tree], hairs stinging and not [glabrous]; monoecious or dioecious; wind-pollinated. Leaf: alternate or opposite, generally stipuled, petioled, blade often with translucent, raised dots due to crystals in epidermal cells. Inflorescence: axillary, 1-flowered or head-, raceme-, or panicle-like. Flower: generally unisexual, small, ± green; sepals generally 4–5, free to fused; petals 0. Staminate flower: stamens generally 4–5, opposite sepals, incurved in bud, reflexing suddenly when flower opens. Pistillate flower: ovary 1, superior, chamber 1, style 0–1, stigma 1, generally hair-tufted. Fruit: generally achene.
50 genera, 700 species: worldwide; some cultivated (Boehmeria, ramie; Pilea, clearweed). [Boufford 1997 FNANM 3:400–413] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Miller 1971 J Arnold Arbor 52:40–68]

Key to Urticaceae

BOEHMERIA FALSE NETTLE
Perennial herb [shrub], stinging hairs 0. Leaf: opposite (alternate), ± ovate, toothed, 3-veined from base; base round to cordate; tip obtuse to acuminate; crystals round. Inflorescence: spike-[panicle-]like. Staminate flower: sepals 4, ± free; stamens 4. Pistillate flower: sepals 2–4, fused ± to tip, enclosing ovary. Fruit: flat to lenticular.
± 50 species: especially tropics, subtropics Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaudich., ramie, cultivated for fiber. (G.R. Boehmer, Saxony, 1723–1803) [Kravtsova et al. 2000 Kew Bull 55:43–62]

B. cylindrica (L.) Sw.
NATURALIZED
Perennial herb to subshrub, 1–16 dm; monoecious. Leaf: glabrous, scabrous, or abaxially short-hairy; blades elliptic to lanceolate, 5–18 cm, 2–10 cm wide. Inflorescence: interrupted, generally of mixed staminate, pistillate flowers.
Levees, riparian areas; < 10 m. Deltaic Sacramento Valley; central and eastern United States, Mexico, Central America, South America, West Indies, Bermuda. [Boehmeria nivea (L.) Gaudich., misappl.] Aug–Nov [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 20 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Boehmeria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=15802, accessed on Apr 20 2014

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Bioregions in which Boehmeria cylindrica occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.