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BLECHNACEAE DEER FERN FAMILY

John C. Game, Alan R. Smith & Thomas Lemieux

Plants in soil [climbing]; rhizome short- to long-creeping to erect, scaly; new growth often ± red. Leaf: of 1 or 2 kinds, fertile, sterile; stipe in ×-section with vascular strands in circle; blade [(simple or 2-pinnate)] deeply pinnately lobed to 1-pinnate, pinnae deeply pinnately lobed or not, hairs generally 0; veins free or netted. Sporangia: sori linear to oblong, along veins parallel to nearest midrib; indusium shaped ± like sorus, opening towards nearest midrib; stalk cells in 2–3 rows; spores elliptic, scar linear.
± 9 genera, ± 250 species: worldwide, especially tropics; several species cultivated. New classification badly needed, in which all genera but Woodwardia are placed under Blechnum or, preferably, ± 25 genera, including ± 10 new ones, are recognized. —Scientific Editors: Alan R. Smith, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Blechnaceae

BLECHNUM
Rhizome suberect [or long-creeping, climbing, or erect]. Leaf: of [± 1] or 2 kinds, fertile > sterile, with much narrower pinnae or lobes; lower pinnae reduced or not; veins of sterile leaves free.
> 200 species: worldwide, especially tropics, subtropics. (Greek: ancient name for ferns)
Unabridged note: Not monophyletic. Reclassification needed, in which Blechnum spicant probably will be treated in Struthiopteris.

B. spicant (L.) Roth DEER FERN
NATIVE
Leaf: stipe short, base ± black, with persistent ± brown scales; sterile leaves forming rosette, spreading to arching, firm, deeply pinnately lobed to 1-pinnate, generally < 1 m, 2–10 cm wide; pinnae generally 20–80 pairs, 5–8 mm wide, entire to shallowly crenate, lower gradually reduced to semicircular lobes < 5 mm; fertile leaves appearing after sterile, in center of rosette, ± erect, 1-pinnate, > sterile, pinnae ± 2 mm wide, unlobed.
2n=68. Shaded, neutral to acid moist areas; ± 0–1500 m. North Coast, Outer North Coast Ranges, n High Sierra Nevada, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area; to Alaska, Idaho; Europe, southwestern Asia, northern Africa. [Struthiopteris spicant (L.) Weiss] Locally common. [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Blechnum
Next taxon: Woodwardia

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 26 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Blechnum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=15738, accessed on Jul 26 2014

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click for enlargement Blechnum spicant
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2007 Dr. Mark S. Brunell

Bioregions in which Blechnum spicant occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.