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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to shrub, tree [vine, cactus-like succulent]; monoecious or dioecious; sap clear or milky. Stem: generally branched [fleshy or spiny]. Leaf: generally simple, alternate to whorled, generally stipuled, sessile or petioled; blade entire, toothed, or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers solitary or in terminal or axillary cymes, racemes, spikes, or panicles, or (in Euphorbia) 1° inflorescence a compact, flower-like cyathium with much-reduced flowers enclosed within an involucre of fused bracts, cyathia terminal or axillary, 1 or in cyme-like arrays. Flower: unisexual, ± radial; sepals 0 or 2–6, free or fused; petals generally 0(5); stamens 1–many, free or filaments fused; ovary superior, chambers (1)3(4), styles free or fused, undivided, forked, or variously lobed. Fruit: generally capsule that splits into mericarps that then dehisce, releasing seeds. Seed: 1 per chamber; knob-like appendage sometimes present at attachment scar.
217 genera, 6000+ species: ± worldwide especially tropics; some cultivated (Aleurites, tung oil; Euphorbia species; Hevea, rubber; Ricinus). Many species ± highly TOXIC, due primarily to latex, especially if eaten or in contact with skin, eyes. [Yang et al. 2012 Taxon 61:764–789] Eremocarpus moved to Croton, Tetracoccus moved to Picrodendraceae for TJM2; Chamaesyce moved to Euphorbia here (key to genera revised by Thomas J. Rosatti). —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Euphorbiaceae
Shrub; sap clear; [monoecious] dioecious. Stem: erect, generally much-branched. Leaf: cauline, alternate; hairs simple or stellate. Staminate inflorescence: spike or raceme, axillary. Pistillate inflorescence: terminal; flower occasionally 1. Staminate flower: sessile or short-pedicelled; calyx splitting into 3–4 parts; stamens 3–25, filaments free; nectar disk minute or 0. Pistillate flower: sessile; sepals 4–6; nectar disk 0; ovary 3-chambered, styles 3, free, 2-lobed or -toothed. Fruit: 3-lobed. Seed: scar appendaged.
30–40 species: tropics, subtropical America. (Bernard de Jussieu, French taxonomist, 1699–1776) Bernardia myricifolia (Scheele) S. Watson not in California.
Plant < 2.5 m, hairy. Leaf: stipules ± 1 mm, deciduous; petiole 1–5 mm; blade 0.5–3 cm, elliptic, tip obtuse or rounded, margin crenate. Staminate inflorescence: raceme; pedicel 3–4 mm. Pistillate inflorescence: flower 1, sessile. Staminate flower: stamens 12–15; nectar disk of small glands. Pistillate flower: sepals 5, ± 2 mm, unequal; ovary tomentose, styles jagged. Fruit: 8–10 mm diam, tomentose. Seed: 5 mm, smooth; back ribbed.
Washes, rocky canyons; < 1200 m. s Mojave Desert, Sonoran Desert; to Texas, Mexico. Apr–May, Oct–Nov [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Bernardia
Next taxon: Croton
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 21 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Bernardia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=15609, accessed on Sep 21 2014
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Bernardia incana|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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