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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Michael P. Williams

Perennial herb, shrub, [tree], generally rhizomed, caudexed or not, glabrous, glaucous, or hairy. Stem: spreading to erect, branched or not. Leaf: simple, 1–3-ternate, or pinnately compound, basal and cauline, generally alternate, deciduous or evergreen, petioled, stipuled. Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, or panicle, scapose, terminal, or axillary. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 6–18 or 0, generally in whorls of 3; petals generally 6, in 2 whorls of 3, or 0; stamens 6–12(13), free or fused at base, in 2 whorls or not, anthers dehiscent by flap-like valves or longitudinal slits; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovules generally 1–10, style 1 or 0, stigma flat or spheric. Fruit: berry, capsule, achene [follicle].
16 genera, ± 670 species: temperate, tropics worldwide; some cultivated (Berberis, Epimedium, Nandina (heavenly bamboo), Vancouveria). [Wang 2007 Syst Bot 32:731–742] Lower sepals sometimes called "bracteoles," inner petals "staminodes". —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Ernst 1964 J Arnold Arbor 45:1–35]

Key to Berberidaceae

Shrub, generally rhizomed. Stem: spreading to erect, branched, spiny or not, vine-like or not; inner bark, wood generally bright yellow; over-wintering bud scales deciduous or not. Leaf: simple or pinnately compound, cauline, alternate, generally leathery, generally persistent; leaflets generally 3–11, ± round to lanceolate, generally spine-toothed. Inflorescence: raceme, axillary or terminal. Flower: sepals 9 in 3 whorls of 3; petals 6 in 2 whorls of 3, bases generally glandular; stamens 6; ovules 2–9, stigma ± spheric. Fruit: berry, spheric to elliptic, generally purple-black.
± 600 species: temperate worldwide. (Latin: ancient Arabic name for barberry) Roots often TOXIC: spines may inject fungal spores into skin. [Kim 2004 J Plant Res 117:175–182] Contact with filament causes stamen to snap inward, possibly to deposit pollen on pollinator.
Unabridged references: [Moran 1982 Phytologia 52:221–226, for relationship between Berberis, Mahonia.]

Key to Berberis

B. haematocarpa Wooton
Stem: erect, 0.5–4 m; bud scales < 5 mm, generally deciduous. Leaf: 3–6 cm, crowded on short lateral stems; petiole < 1 cm; leaflets 3–5, terminal 3–3.5 cm, 0.8–1.2 cm wide, generally narrow-lanceolate, wavy, generally folded along midrib, base truncate to wedge-shaped, tip generally acuminate, margin ± lobed, spines 3–8 per side, 2–3 mm. Inflorescence: 2–3.5 cm, open; axis internodes 2–10 mm, 5–10 mm in fruit; flowers 3–5. Fruit: 8–10 mm diam, ± spheric, red-brown to dark purple. Seed: 3–4 mm.
Rocky slopes, pinyon/juniper woodland, chaparral; 1000–1850 m. e&s Mojave Desert; to Texas, Mexico. [Mahonia haematocarpa (Wooton) Fedde] Perhaps best treated as synonym of Berberis fremontii. Mar–May [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Berberis fremontii
Next taxon: Berberis harrisoniana


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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Berberis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 30 2015

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click for enlargement Berberis haematocarpa
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© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Berberis haematocarpa Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.