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Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, except as noted

Annual to shrub; sap pungent, watery. Leaf: generally simple, alternate; generally both basal, cauline; stipules 0. Inflorescence: generally raceme, generally not bracted. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 4, generally free; petals (0)4, forming a cross, generally white or yellow to purple; stamens generally 6 (2 or 4), 4 long, 2 short (3 pairs of unequal length); ovary 1, superior, generally 2-chambered with septum connecting 2 parietal placentas; style 1, stigma entire or 2-lobed. Fruit: capsule, generally 2-valved, "silique" (length >= 3 × width) or "silicle" (length < 3 × width), dehiscent by 2 valves or indehiscent, cylindric or flat parallel or perpendicular to septum, segmented or not. Seed: 1–many, in 1 or 2 rows per chamber, winged or wingless; embryo strongly curved.
± 330 genera, 3780 species: worldwide, especially temperate. [Al-Shehbaz et al. 2006 Plant Syst Evol 259:89–120] Highest diversity in Mediterranean area, mountains of southwestern Asia, adjacent central Asia, western North America; some Brassica species are oil or vegetable crops; Arabidopsis thaliana used in experimental molecular biology; many species are ornamentals, weeds. Aurinia saxatilis (L.) Desvaux in cultivation only. Aubrieta occasional waif in central North Coast Ranges, Carrichtera annua (L.) DC. in South Coast, Iberis sempervirens L., Iberis umbellata L. in Peninsular Ranges, Teesdalia coronopifolia (Bergeret) Thell., Teesdalia nudicaulis (L.) W.T. Aiton in southern Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast. Cardaria, Coronopus moved to Lepidium; Caulostramina to Hesperidanthus; Guillenia to Caulanthus; Heterodraba to Athysanus; California taxa of Lesquerella to Physaria; Malcolmia africana to Strigosella. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Brassicaceae

Biennial, perennial herb, erect; hairs simple or 0. Stem: angled. Leaf: basal petioled, rosetted, pinnately lobed, terminal lobe > lateral; cauline dentate or pinnately lobed; middle, distal sessile, base lobed. Inflorescence: terminal; bracts 0. Flower: sepals erect or spreading, base not sac-like; petals yellow, ± clawed. Fruit: silique, linear, dehiscent, unsegmented, cylindric to ± 4-sided or flat parallel to septum; valves strongly 1-veined, glabrous; stigma entire to ± 2-lobed. Seed: 10–40, in 1 row, wingless.
22 species: North America, Eurasia, Australia, northern Africa. (Saint Barbara)

Key to Barbarea

B. orthoceras Ledeb.
Glabrous except sepals, basal leaf lobe tips. Stem: (1)2–6(10) dm, branched distally. Leaf: pinnately lobed; basal 1.5–12(25) cm, lateral lobe pairs (1)2–4(5), terminal lobe much larger, ovate, entire or irregularly toothed; cauline lobed (not), base strongly lobed. Flower: sepals 2.5–3.5 mm; petals 5–7(8) mm, bright yellow. Fruit: erect to ascending, (2.5)3–4(4.5) cm; style 0.2–1.2(2) mm; pedicel (2)3–6(7) mm, narrower than fruit. Seed: 24–36, ovate or oblong, 1.2–1.5 mm.
2n=16. Damp meadows, wet rocks, streambanks, moist woodland, grassland, scree, ledges; < 3400 m. California Floristic Province (except Great Central Valley), Modoc Plateau, n East of Sierra Nevada, White and Inyo Mountains; Alaska, Canada, eastern North America, also central and eastern Asia. [Barbarea orthoceras var. dolichocarpa Fernald] Mar–Jul [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Barbarea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015

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click for enlargement Barbarea orthoceras
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© 1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Barbarea orthoceras Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.