|University of California, Berkeley|
|Directory News Site Map Home|
|Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Annual, perennial herb, shrub, tree, often vine; sap generally milky. Leaf: simple, alternate, opposite, subwhorled to whorled, entire; stipules 0 or small, finger-like. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal, cyme, generally umbel- or raceme-like, or flowers 1–2. Flower: bisexual, radial; perianth parts, especially petals, overlapped, twisted to right or left, at least in bud; sepals generally 5, fused at base, often reflexed, persistent; petals generally 5, fused in basal ± 1/2; stamens generally 5, attached to corolla tube or throat, alternate lobes, free or fused to form filament column and anther head, filament column then generally with 5 free or fused, ± elaborate appendages abaxially, pollen ± free or removed in pairs of pollinia; nectaries 0 or near ovaries, then 2 or 5, or in stigmatic chambers; ovaries 2, superior or ± so, free [fused]; style tips, stigmas generally fused into massive pistil head. Fruit: 1–2 follicles, (capsule), [berry, drupe]. Seed: many, often with tuft of hairs at 1 or both ends.
200–450 genera, 3000–5000 species: all continents, especially tropics, subtropical South America, southern Africa; many ornamental (including Asclepias, Hoya, Nerium, Plumeria, Stapelia); cardiac glycosides, produced by some members formerly treated in Asclepiadaceae, used as arrow poisons, in medicine to control heart function, and by various insects for defense. [Fishbein 2001 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 88:603–623] Asclepiadaceae ("asclepiads"), although monophyletic, included in Apocynaceae because otherwise the latter is paraphyletic. Complexity of floral structure, variation in asclepiads arguably greatest among all angiosperms. Pattern of carpel fusion (carpels free in ovule-bearing region, fused above), present ± throughout Apocynaceae (in broad sense), nearly unknown in other angiosperms. Base chromosome number generally 11; abundance of latex, generally small size of chromosomes evidently have impeded cytological investigations. —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Civeyrel et al. 1998 Molec Phylogen Evol 9:517–527; Rosatti 1989 J Arnold Arbor 70:307–401]
Key to Apocynaceae
Annual, perennial herb, shrub. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: generally opposite (alternate, whorled), each pair at right angles to those below, above, generally persistent; blade narrow-linear to ovate or cordate. Inflorescence: terminal or at generally upper nodes, umbel-like cyme. Flower: ring of tissue at base of corolla 0; filament column appendages (hoods) free, elevated above corolla base or not, each often with an elongate projection (horn) attached to inside, margins converging and meeting or nearly meeting adaxially but not fused; anthers fused into anther head around and fused to pistil head, pollen in pollinia; pistil head flat or conic on top; nectaries in stigmatic chambers. Fruit: erect (but generally on pendent pedicel) or pendent, lance-ovoid to ovoid, smooth or with tubercles.Key to Asclepias
In narrow sense of genus, 100 species: North America, Central America, perhaps South America. (Greek physician Aesculapius) Fresh flowers generally better for determining relative positions of parts; hoods may have near anther head 2 ± sickle shaped lobes each that may ± resemble horns. A. linaria not outside cultivation in California, so deleted here; previous inclusion in TJM2 (2012) based on faulty locality data.
Unabridged references: [Liede-Schumann & Meve 2006 http://www.uni-bayreuth.de/departments/planta2/research/databases/delta_as/www/asclep.htm; Woodson 1954 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 41:1–211]
Annual, ± hairy. Stem: erect. Leaf: opposite; petiole short; blade lanceolate. Inflorescence: terminal and at upper nodes; peduncle 3–6 cm. Flower: corolla reflexed, bright crimson (yellow or white); hoods elevated above corolla base, at ± same level as anther head, generally yellow or orange; horns exserted, exceeding hoods. Fruit: erect on erect pedicels. Seed: 5–7 mm.
2n=22. Moist sites; < 2000 m. Southwestern California; ± ubiquitous waif of tropics, subtrops; native to Central America and/or South America. No evidence of occurrence outside cultivation in California.
Unabridged note: No evidence of occurrence outside cultivation in California; although escapes cultivation elsewhere in North America, reports conflicting as to whether or not plants naturalized.
± all year
Previous taxon: Asclepias cryptoceras
Next taxon: Asclepias eriocarpa
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 21 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Asclepias, Revision 1, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=14363, accessed on Apr 21 2014
Copyright © 2013 Regents of the University of California
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.
See CalPhotos for additional images
© 2011 Dr. Mark S. Brunell
|Bioregions in which Asclepias curassavica occurs|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
|View elevation by latitude chart|| Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
CCH collections by month