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ARISTOLOCHIACEAE PIPEVINE FAMILY

Michael R. Mesler & Karen Lu

Perennial herb, woody vine, [shrub], rhizomed, aromatic. Stem: branched, occasionally ± underground. Leaf: simple, basal, cauline, or arising from rhizome, alternate; blade generally cordate, entire. Inflorescence: flower generally 1, axillary or terminal. Flower: bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 3, free or fused; petals generally 0; stamens generally 6 or 12, free or fused to style; pistil generally 1, ovary ± or partly inferior, chambers generally 6. Fruit: generally capsule. Seed: many.
5–8 genera, ± 500 species: mainly tropics, warm temperate; some cultivated (Aristolochia, Asarum, Saruma). [Neinhaus et al. 2005 Plant Syst Evol 250:7–26] —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Aristolochiaceae

ARISTOLOCHIA PIPEVINE, BIRTHWORT
Stem: generally climbing. Leaf: cauline. Inflorescence: flower axillary. Flower: [often foul smelling] sepals fused into a generally curved tube, deciduous, lobes 1–3; stamens 6, fused to style. Seed: flat.
± 400 species: generally tropics, warm temperate. (Greek: best birth, from use as medication in childbirth) [Ohi-Toma et al. 2006 Syst Bot 31:481–492]

A. californica Torr.
NATIVE
Plant soft-hairy. Stem: generally < 5 m, twining. Leaf: deciduous; blade 3–15 cm, ovate-cordate to sagittate. Flower: fragrance musty; sepals 3, tube 2–4 cm, U-shaped, ± green to pale brown, with thick ± yellow to red lining, veins purple. Fruit: winged capsule.
2n=28. Streamsides, forest, chaparral; < 700 m. Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, Sacramento Valley, n San Joaquin Valley, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, n Outer South Coast Ranges. [Isotrema californicum (Torr.) H. Huber] Pollinated by fungus gnats. Jan–Apr [Online Interchange]

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Next taxon: Asarum

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 2 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Aristolochia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=14232, accessed on Sep 2 2014

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click for enlargement Aristolochia californica
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© 2006 Matt Below

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Aristolochia californica Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.