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Perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: bark often peeling distinctively. Leaf: simple or 0, generally cauline, alternate, opposite (whorled), evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers 1, terminal or axillary, generally bracted; pedicel often with 2 bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, bell-shaped, cylindric, or urn-shaped; sepals generally (0)4–5, generally free; petals generally (0)4–5, free or fused; stamens (2–5)8–10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers dehiscing by pores or slits, awns 0 or 2(4), seemingly abaxial, reduced or elongate, generally curved; nectary generally present at ovary base, generally disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1–5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry. Seed: generally many, winged or not.
± 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium. [Kron et al. 2002 Bot Rev 68:335–423] Monophyletic only if Empetraceae included, as treated here. Ledum included in Rhododendron. Non-green plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates. —Scientific Editors: Gary D. Wallace, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Ericaceae
Shrub to small tree, prostrate to erect. Stem: old stems generally ± red, smooth, bark generally thin, peeling, or generally ± gray or red-gray, shredding and rough; burls at base, woody, sprouting after fire, or generally 0; twig hairs 0 or generally ± like those on inflorescence axes, bracts. Leaf: alternate, evergreen; blade flat to convex, base lobed to wedge-shaped, clasping stem or not, margins generally flat, surfaces with stomata generally both abaxially, adaxially, alike in color, hairiness, less often only or fewer abaxially, generally differing in color, hairiness. Inflorescence: ± raceme (generally 0–1-branched) or panicle (generally 2–10-branched), terminal, nascent inflorescence present following stem growth, generally late spring through winter, remaining dormant 4–6 months prior to flower (except in Arctostaphylos pringlei subsp. drupacea); branches 0 or raceme-like; flower bracts leaf-like, generally flat, or scale-like, often folded, keeled, tips rounded to acute to awl-shaped. Flower: radial; sepals 5(4), free, persistent; corolla conic to urn-shaped, lobes in number = sepals, short, rounded, curved back, white to pink; stamens 2 × number of sepals, included, filaments swollen, generally hairy at base, anthers dark red, awns elongate; ovary superior, on disk, 4–10-chambered, ovule 1 per chamber. Fruit: drupe, generally ± depressed-spheric to spheric; flesh generally thick, ± mealy, occasionally 0; stones 2–10, free, fused, or some fused.Key to Arctostaphylos
± 62 species: North America (especially California) to Central America, Eurasia. (Greek: bear berries) [Keeley 1997 Madroño 44:109–111; Parker et al. 2007 Madroño 54:148–155]
Unabridged note: Rosatti (1986 Syst Bot 12:61–77) showed that in Arctostaphylos uva-ursi little to none of the variation in hairs (including length, glandularity) is genetically based.
Prostrate to mounded, 0.1–0.5 m; burled or not. Stem: twig (and nascent inflorescence axis) sparsely short-nonglandular-hairy, occasionally long-nonglandular- and/or short-glandular-hairy. Leaf: spreading; petiole 2–4 mm; blade 1–2.5 cm, 0.5–1.5 cm wide, oblanceolate to obovate, occasionally narrowly elliptic, abaxially light green, shiny, sparsely puberulent, in age glabrous, adaxially dark green, base wedge-shaped, tip obtuse, occasionally acute, margin entire, often cupped; stomata abaxial. Inflorescence: ± raceme, 0–1-branched; nascent inflorescence pendent, axis 0.3–1 cm, > 1 mm wide; bracts 2–6 mm, scale-like, narrowly deltate, acuminate, glabrous; pedicel 2–4 mm, glabrous. Flower: ovary glabrous. Fruit: 6–12 mm wide, spheric, glabrous; stones free.
2n=26,52. Rocky outcrops, slopes, stabilized dunes, closed-cone conifer forest, grassy coastal headlands, chaparral, subalpine forest; generally < 100 m (2400–3300 m in c High Sierra Nevada). North Coast, c High Sierra Nevada (above Convict Lake, Mono Co), Central Coast; to Alaska, Greenland, Virginia, Colorado, New Mexico; also Guatemala, circumboreal. [Arctostaphylos uva-ursi f. adenotricha (Fernald & J.F. Macbr.) P.V. Wells; Arctostaphylos uva-ursi subsp. adenotricha (Fernald & J.F. Macbr.) Calder & Roy L. Taylor; Arctostaphylos uva-ursi f. coactilis (Fernald & J.F. Macbr.) P.V. Wells; Arctostaphylos uva-ursi subsp. coactilis (Fernald & J.F. Macbr.) Á. Löve, D. Löve; Arctostaphylos uva-ursi var. coactilis Fernald & J.F. Macbr.; Arctostaphylos uva-ursi var. leobreweri Roof; Arctostaphylos uva-ursi var. marinensis Roof; Arctostaphylos uva-ursi subsp. monoensis Roof.] Jan–Jun [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Arctostaphylos tomentosa subsp. tomentosa
Next taxon: Arctostaphylos virgata
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 28 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Arctostaphylos, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=13990, accessed on Nov 28 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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