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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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Job Kuijt

Perennial herb, shrub, generally ± green, parasitic on aboveground parts of woody plants; dioecious [monoecious]. Stem: brittle; 2° branches generally many. Leaf: simple, entire, opposite, 4-ranked, with blade or scale-like (then each pair generally fused). Inflorescence: spikes or cymes, axillary or terminal; bracts opposite, 4-ranked, scale-like, each pair fused. Flower: unisexual, radial, 2–4 mm; perianth parts in 1 series. Staminate flower: perianth parts 3–4(7); anthers generally sessile, opposite and generally on perianth parts. Pistillate flower: perianth parts generally 2–4; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, style unbranched, stigma ± obscure. Fruit: berry, shiny. Seed: 1(2), without thickened coat, gelatinous.
7 genera, ± 450 species: tropics, generally northern temperate. All parts of most members may be TOXIC. [Kuijt 2003 Syst Bot Monogr 66:1–643] Sometimes included in Loranthaceae; parasitic on plants in many other families. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Kuijt 1969 Biol Parasitic Fl Plants; Kuijt 1982 J Arnold Arbor 63:401–410; Kuijt 2003 Syst Bot Monogr 66:1–643]

Key to Viscaceae

Perennial herb, shrub, glabrous. Stem: generally < 20 cm, ± angled at least when young, ± yellow, ± green, brown, purple; branches whorled or in 1 plane. Leaf: < 1 mm, scale-like. Inflorescence: generally spikes, peduncle short; flowers generally opposite, 4-ranked, less often whorled or 1, terminal. Staminate flower: perianth parts generally 3–4; anthers ± 1-chambered. Pistillate flower: perianth parts 2, persistent, minute. Fruit: generally 2–5 mm, broadly fusiform-spheric, 2-colored (1 color below, 1 above); pedicel short, recurved; seeds projected to 15 m by fruit explosion.
26 species: temperate, tropics northern hemisphere. (Greek: juniper, life) [Nickrent et al. 2004 Amer J Bot 91:125–138] Most important of timber pathogens; most species cause abnormal branching (witches' brooms) in hosts. Recent molecular studies support reunification of many western North American species under Arceuthobium campylopodum.

Key to Arceuthobium

Stem: generally < 2 cm, 1 mm wide at base, green; 2° branches rare. Seed: mature Sep–Oct.
n=14. Uncommon. Mixed-conifer woodland, on Pseudotsuga menziesii, rarely on associated Abies; 1500–2000 m. Klamath Ranges, High Cascade Range; to British Columbia, Colorado. May–Jun [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Arceuthobium campylopodum
Next taxon: Phoradendron


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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Arceuthobium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Arceuthobium douglasii Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.