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VISCACEAE MISTLETOE FAMILY

Job Kuijt

Perennial herb, shrub, generally ± green, parasitic on aboveground parts of woody plants; dioecious [monoecious]. Stem: brittle; 2° branches generally many. Leaf: simple, entire, opposite, 4-ranked, with blade or scale-like (then each pair generally fused). Inflorescence: spikes or cymes, axillary or terminal; bracts opposite, 4-ranked, scale-like, each pair fused. Flower: unisexual, radial, 2–4 mm; perianth parts in 1 series. Staminate flower: perianth parts 3–4(7); anthers generally sessile, opposite and generally on perianth parts. Pistillate flower: perianth parts generally 2–4; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, style unbranched, stigma ± obscure. Fruit: berry, shiny. Seed: 1(2), without thickened coat, gelatinous.
7 genera, ± 450 species: tropics, generally northern temperate. All parts of most members may be TOXIC. [Kuijt 2003 Syst Bot Monogr 66:1–643] Sometimes included in Loranthaceae; parasitic on plants in many other families. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Kuijt 1969 Biol Parasitic Fl Plants; Kuijt 1982 J Arnold Arbor 63:401–410; Kuijt 2003 Syst Bot Monogr 66:1–643]

Key to Viscaceae

ARCEUTHOBIUM DWARF MISTLETOE
Perennial herb, shrub, glabrous. Stem: generally < 20 cm, ± angled at least when young, ± yellow, ± green, brown, purple; branches whorled or in 1 plane. Leaf: < 1 mm, scale-like. Inflorescence: generally spikes, peduncle short; flowers generally opposite, 4-ranked, less often whorled or 1, terminal. Staminate flower: perianth parts generally 3–4; anthers ± 1-chambered. Pistillate flower: perianth parts 2, persistent, minute. Fruit: generally 2–5 mm, broadly fusiform-spheric, 2-colored (1 color below, 1 above); pedicel short, recurved; seeds projected to 15 m by fruit explosion.
26 species: temperate, tropics northern hemisphere. (Greek: juniper, life) [Nickrent et al. 2004 Amer J Bot 91:125–138] Most important of timber pathogens; most species cause abnormal branching (witches' brooms) in hosts. Recent molecular studies support reunification of many western North American species under Arceuthobium campylopodum.

Key to Arceuthobium

A. campylopodum Engelm. WESTERN DWARF MISTLETOE
NATIVE
Stem: 3–14 cm, 1–6 mm wide at base, yellow, olive-green, or brown. Seed: mature Aug–Dec.
n=14. Common. Conifer forest, on Abies, Pinus (except Pinus contorta subsp. murrayana), Tsuga, rarely Picea; < 2800 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains; to southeastern Alaska, Montana, Colorado, New Mexico, northern Baja California. [Arceuthobium abietinum (Engelm.) Hawksw. & Wiens; Arceuthobium californicum Hawksw. & Wiens; Arceuthobium cyanocarpum J.M. Coult. & A. Nelson; Arceuthobium divaricatum Engelm.; Arceuthobium littorum Hawksw. et al.; Arceuthobium monticola Hawksw. et al.; Arceuthobium occidentale Engelm.; Arceuthobium siskiyouense Hawksw. et al.; Arceuthobium tsugense (Rosend.) G.N. Jones; Arceuthobium tsugense subsp. mertensianae Hawksw. & Nickrent; Arceuthobium tsugense subsp. tsugense] Generally Jul–Nov [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Arceuthobium abietinum (Engelm.) Hawksw. & Wiens; Arceuthobium californicum Hawksw. & Wiens; Arceuthobium cyanocarpum J.M. Coult. & A. Nelson; Arceuthobium divaricatum Engelm.; Arceuthobium littorum Hawksw., Wiens, & Nickrent; Arceuthobium monticola Hawksw., Wiens, & Nickrent; Arceuthobium occidentale Engelm.; Arceuthobium siskiyouense Hawksw., Wiens, & Nickrent; Arceuthobium tsugense (Rosend.) G.N. Jones; Arceuthobium tsugense subsp. contortae Wass & Mathiasen; Arceuthobium tsugense subsp. mertensianae Hawksw. & Nickrent; Arceuthobium tsugense subsp. tsugense]

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Next taxon: Arceuthobium douglasii

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 25 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Arceuthobium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=13881, accessed on Jul 25 2014

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click for enlargement Arceuthobium campylopodum
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© 2004 David A. Tharp

Bioregions in which Arceuthobium campylopodum occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.