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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Perennial herb, shrub, generally ± green, parasitic on aboveground parts of woody plants; dioecious [monoecious]. Stem: brittle; 2° branches generally many. Leaf: simple, entire, opposite, 4-ranked, with blade or scale-like (then each pair generally fused). Inflorescence: spikes or cymes, axillary or terminal; bracts opposite, 4-ranked, scale-like, each pair fused. Flower: unisexual, radial, 2–4 mm; perianth parts in 1 series. Staminate flower: perianth parts 3–4(7); anthers generally sessile, opposite and generally on perianth parts. Pistillate flower: perianth parts generally 2–4; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, style unbranched, stigma ± obscure. Fruit: berry, shiny. Seed: 1(2), without thickened coat, gelatinous.
7 genera, ± 450 species: tropics, generally northern temperate. All parts of most members may be TOXIC. [Kuijt 2003 Syst Bot Monogr 66:1–643] Sometimes included in Loranthaceae; parasitic on plants in many other families. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Kuijt 1969 Biol Parasitic Fl Plants; Kuijt 1982 J Arnold Arbor 63:401–410; Kuijt 2003 Syst Bot Monogr 66:1–643]
Key to Viscaceae
Perennial herb, shrub, glabrous. Stem: generally < 20 cm, ± angled at least when young, ± yellow, ± green, brown, purple; branches whorled or in 1 plane. Leaf: < 1 mm, scale-like. Inflorescence: generally spikes, peduncle short; flowers generally opposite, 4-ranked, less often whorled or 1, terminal. Staminate flower: perianth parts generally 3–4; anthers ± 1-chambered. Pistillate flower: perianth parts 2, persistent, minute. Fruit: generally 2–5 mm, broadly fusiform-spheric, 2-colored (1 color below, 1 above); pedicel short, recurved; seeds projected to 15 m by fruit explosion.Key to Arceuthobium
26 species: temperate, tropics northern hemisphere. (Greek: juniper, life) [Nickrent et al. 2004 Amer J Bot 91:125–138] Most important of timber pathogens; most species cause abnormal branching (witches' brooms) in hosts. Recent molecular studies support reunification of many western North American species under Arceuthobium campylopodum.
Stem: 3–14 cm, 1–6 mm wide at base, yellow, olive-green, or brown. Seed: mature Aug–Dec.
n=14. Common. Conifer forest, on Abies, Pinus (except Pinus contorta subsp. murrayana), Tsuga, rarely Picea; < 2800 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, Great Basin Floristic Province, Desert Mountains; to southeastern Alaska, Montana, Colorado, New Mexico, northern Baja California. [Arceuthobium abietinum (Engelm.) Hawksw. & Wiens; Arceuthobium californicum Hawksw. & Wiens; Arceuthobium cyanocarpum J.M. Coult. & A. Nelson; Arceuthobium divaricatum Engelm.; Arceuthobium littorum Hawksw. et al.; Arceuthobium monticola Hawksw. et al.; Arceuthobium occidentale Engelm.; Arceuthobium siskiyouense Hawksw. et al.; Arceuthobium tsugense (Rosend.) G.N. Jones; Arceuthobium tsugense subsp. mertensianae Hawksw. & Nickrent; Arceuthobium tsugense subsp. tsugense] Generally Jul–Nov [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Arceuthobium abietinum (Engelm.) Hawksw. & Wiens; Arceuthobium californicum Hawksw. & Wiens; Arceuthobium cyanocarpum J.M. Coult. & A. Nelson; Arceuthobium divaricatum Engelm.; Arceuthobium littorum Hawksw., Wiens, & Nickrent; Arceuthobium monticola Hawksw., Wiens, & Nickrent; Arceuthobium occidentale Engelm.; Arceuthobium siskiyouense Hawksw., Wiens, & Nickrent; Arceuthobium tsugense (Rosend.) G.N. Jones; Arceuthobium tsugense subsp. contortae Wass & Mathiasen; Arceuthobium tsugense subsp. mertensianae Hawksw. & Nickrent; Arceuthobium tsugense subsp. tsugense]
Previous taxon: Arceuthobium americanum
Next taxon: Arceuthobium douglasii
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 12 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Arceuthobium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=13881, accessed on Mar 12 2014
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