Directory       News       Site Map       Home
    Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Previous taxon


Gary D. Wallace, except as noted

Perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: bark often peeling distinctively. Leaf: simple or 0, generally cauline, alternate, opposite (whorled), evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers 1, terminal or axillary, generally bracted; pedicel often with 2 bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, bell-shaped, cylindric, or urn-shaped; sepals generally (0)4–5, generally free; petals generally (0)4–5, free or fused; stamens (2–5)8–10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers dehiscing by pores or slits, awns 0 or 2(4), seemingly abaxial, reduced or elongate, generally curved; nectary generally present at ovary base, generally disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1–5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry. Seed: generally many, winged or not.
± 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium. [Kron et al. 2002 Bot Rev 68:335–423] Monophyletic only if Empetraceae included, as treated here. Ledum included in Rhododendron. Non-green plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates. —Scientific Editors: Gary D. Wallace, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Ericaceae

Shrub, tree, glabrous to hairy, burled or not. Stem: erect; bark smooth at first, then shredding or fissured. Leaf: alternate, evergreen, leathery. Inflorescence: panicle, bracted; bractlets 2. Flower: sepals 5, fused at base; corolla urn-shaped, petals 5, fused; stamens 10, anthers dehiscing by short separate gaping slits, awns elongate; ovary superior, papillate, chambers 5. Fruit: berry. Seed: few per chamber.
20 species: North America, Central America, western Europe, Mediterranean, western Asia. (Latin: name for Arbutus unedo L., strawberry tree)

A. menziesii Pursh PACIFIC MADRONE
Stem: < 40 m, bark ± red, twigs stout. Leaf: blade < 12 cm, ovate to oblong, glabrous, rounded to pointed at tip, entire to minutely serrate, abaxially ± white, adaxially bright green. Flower: < 8 mm; corolla yellow-white or ± pink. Fruit: < 12 mm, spheric, orange-red, papillate.
2n=26. Conifer, oak forests; 100–1500 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, n&c High Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley, Central Western California, n Channel Islands (Santa Cruz Island), Western Transverse Ranges, San Gabriel Mountains, Peninsular Ranges; to British Columbia, Baja California. Mar–May [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Arbutus
Next taxon: Arctostaphylos


Name search

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 6 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Arbutus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 6 2015

Copyright © 2014 Regents of the University of California
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.

click for enlargement Arbutus menziesii
See CalPhotos for additional images
J. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan 2006 California Academy of Sciences

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Arbutus menziesii Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records


CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.