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APOCYNACEAE DOGBANE FAMILY

Thomas J. Rosatti, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, tree, often vine; sap generally milky. Leaf: simple, alternate, opposite, subwhorled to whorled, entire; stipules 0 or small, finger-like. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal, cyme, generally umbel- or raceme-like, or flowers 1–2. Flower: bisexual, radial; perianth parts, especially petals, overlapped, twisted to right or left, at least in bud; sepals generally 5, fused at base, often reflexed, persistent; petals generally 5, fused in basal ± 1/2; stamens generally 5, attached to corolla tube or throat, alternate lobes, free or fused to form filament column and anther head, filament column then generally with 5 free or fused, ± elaborate appendages abaxially, pollen ± free or removed in pairs of pollinia; nectaries 0 or near ovaries, then 2 or 5[10], or in stigmatic chambers; ovaries 2, superior or ± so, free [fused]; style tips, stigmas generally fused into massive pistil head. Fruit: 1–2 follicles, (capsule), [berry, drupe]. Seed: many, often with tuft of hairs at 1 or both ends.
200–450 genera, 3000–5000 species: all continents, especially tropics, subtropical South America, southern Africa; many ornamental (including Asclepias, Hoya, Nerium, Plumeria, Stapelia); cardiac glycosides, produced by some members formerly treated in Asclepiadaceae, used as arrow poisons, in medicine to control heart function, and by various insects for defense. [Fishbein 2001 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 88:603–623] Asclepiadaceae ("asclepiads"), although monophyletic, included in Apocynaceae because otherwise the latter is paraphyletic. Complexity of floral structure, variation in asclepiads arguably greatest among all angiosperms. Pattern of carpel fusion (carpels free in ovule-bearing region, fused above), present ± throughout Apocynaceae (in broad sense), nearly unknown in other angiosperms. Base chromosome number generally 11; abundance of latex, generally small size of chromosomes evidently have impeded cytological investigations. —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Civeyrel et al. 1998 Molec Phylogen Evol 9:517–527; Rosatti 1989 J Arnold Arbor 70:307–401]

Key to Apocynaceae

ARAUJIA BLADDER-FLOWER

Thomas J. Rosatti & Carol A. Hoffman

Perennial herb. Stem: twining. Leaf: opposite; blade cordate, hastate, or ovate. Inflorescence: at nodes, raceme- or panicle-like cyme. Flower: sepals large, leaf-like, ± erect; corolla ± erect (exceeding stamens, pistils), ring of tissue at base 0; filament column appendages free, attached to base of filament column and base of corolla, without projections, margins converging but not nearly meeting abaxially, anthers fused into anther head around and fused to pistil head, pollen in pollinia; nectaries in stigmatic chambers. Fruit: pendent, generally ovoid, with coarse longitudinal grooves.
5 species: South America. (António de Araújo de Azevedo, Portuguese statesman, 1752–1817) [Forster & Bruyns 2001 Taxon 41:746–749]
Unabridged references: [Liede-Schumann & Meve 2006 http://www.uni-bayreuth.de/departments/planta2/research/databases/delta_as/www/araujia.htm; Spellman & Gunn 1976 Castanea 41:139–148]

A. sericifera Brot.
NATURALIZED
Stem: < 12 m, soft-tomentose when young. Leaf: petiole > 1 cm; blade 5–12 cm, adaxially glabrous, abaxially generally dense-puberulent. Flower: corolla 2–3 cm, bell- or funnel-shaped, white; pistil head with 2 erect, elongate lobes on top. Fruit: 10–12 cm.
2n=22. Chaparral, woodland, especially citrus groves; 100–400 m. Central Coast, s Outer South Coast Ranges, South Coast, Western Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges (except San Jacinto Mountains); Georgia; native to South America. Aug–Oct {Noxious weed} [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Aug 1 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Araujia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=13870, accessed on Aug 1 2014

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click for enlargement Araujia sericifera
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© 2006 Stanley Spencer

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.