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RANUNCULACEAE BUTTERCUP FAMILY

Margriet Wetherwax & Dieter H. Wilken, family description, key to genera

Annual, perennial herb, woody vine [shrub], occasionally aquatic. Leaf: generally basal and cauline, alternate or opposite, simple or compound; petioles at base generally flat, occasionally sheathing or stipule-like. Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 3–6(20), free, early-deciduous or withering in fruit, generally green; petals 0–many, generally free; stamens generally 5–many, staminodes generally 0; pistils 1–many, ovary superior, chamber 1, style 0–1, generally ± persistent as beak, ovules 1–many. Fruit: achene, follicle, berry, ± utricle in Trautvetteria, in aggregate or not, 1–many-seeded.
± 60 genera, 1700 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate, tropical mountains; many ornamental (Adonis, Aquilegia, Clematis, Consolida, Delphinium, Helleborus, Nigella). some highly TOXIC (Aconitum, Actaea, Delphinium, Ranunculus). [Whittemore & Parfitt 1997 FNANM 3:85–271] Taxa of Isopyrum in TJM (1993) moved to Enemion; Kumlienia moved to Ranunculus. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Ranunculaceae

AQUILEGIA COLUMBINE

Justen Whittall, Scott A. Hodges & Dieter H. Wilken

Perennial herb; caudex thick, branched to not. Stem: 1–few, ascending to erect, branched to not, scapose to not, glabrous to glandular-hairy. Leaf: basal 1–3-ternate, petiole generally long; cauline 0–few, generally much reduced, deeply 3-lobed to 1–2-ternate, petiole short to ± 0; segments generally wedge-shaped to obovate, abaxially pale green to glaucous, adaxially green to gray, glabrous to glandular. Inflorescence: few-flowered raceme or flower 1, terminal; axis, pedicels glabrous to glandular; flower buds generally pendent. Flower: sepals 5, petal-like, spreading [to ± reflexed]; petals 5, spurs between sepals, mouths < to > 90° to exposed filaments; pistils generally 5. Fruit: follicle, glabrous to glandular. Seed: smooth, shiny, brown to black.
± 70 species: temperate North America, Eurasia. Many species, hybrids cultivated as ornamental; natural hybrids common; recent adaptive radiation with specialized pollinations syndromes (bee, hummingbird, hawkmoth).
Unabridged etymology: (Perhaps Latin: eagle, from spurs, or water-drawer, from habitats)
Unabridged references: [Munz 1946 Gentes Herb 7:1–150]

Key to Aquilegia

A. pubescens Coville
NATIVE
Plant 15–50 cm. Leaf: basal, lower cauline 1–2-ternate, petioles 5–25 cm, leaflets 10–25(40) mm; upper cauline generally deeply 3-lobed to 1-ternate. Inflorescence: flowers spreading to erect. Flower: sepals 10–24 mm, cream to yellow or pink; petal blade 7–20 mm, cream to yellow, spur (20)25–50 mm, cream to yellow or pink, tip 1–2.5 mm wide, mouth <= 90° to exposed filaments, 6–10 mm wide, round, ± cream; stamens 12–21 mm. Fruit: 19–25 mm, beak 10–12 mm.
2n=14. Open, generally rocky slopes, scrub, subalpine forest, alpine; 2600–3650 m. High Sierra Nevada. Generally hawkmoth-pollinated; flower color variable; hybridizes with Aquilegia formosa in High Sierra Nevada. Jul–Aug [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Aquilegia formosa
Next taxon: Aquilegia shockleyi

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 30 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Aquilegia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=13675, accessed on Oct 30 2014

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click for enlargement Aquilegia pubescens
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Robert Potts © 2001 California Academy of Sciences

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Aquilegia pubescens Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.